Balance refers to the location of the center of gravity (CG) of
an airplane, and is important to airplane stability and safety in flight.
The center of gravity is a point at which an airplane would balance if
it were suspended at that point.
The prime concern of airplane balancing is the fore and aft location of the CG along the longitudinal axis. Location of the CG with reference to the lateral axis is also important. For each item of weight existing to the left of the fuselage centerline, there is an equal weight existing at a corresponding location on the right. This may be upset, however, by unbalanced lateral loading.
|The position of the lateral CG is not computed, but the pilot must be aware that adverse effects will certainly arise as a result of a laterally unbalanced condition. Lateral unbalance will occur if the fuel load is mismanaged by supplying the engine(s) unevenly from tanks on one side of the airplane. The pilot can compensate for the resulting wing-heavy condition by adjusting the aileron trim tab or by holding a constant aileron control pressure. However, this places the airplane controls in an out-of-streamline condition, increases drag, and results in decreased operating efficiency. Since lateral balance is relatively easy to control and longitudinal balance is more critical, further reference to balance in this handbook will mean longitudinal location of the center of gravity. [Figure 4-1]|
Effects of Adverse Balance
Adverse balance conditions affect airplane flight characteristics in much the same manner as those mentioned for an excess weight condition. In addition, there are two essential airplane characteristics which may be seriously affected by improper balance; these are stability and control. Loading in a nose-heavy condition causes problems in controlling and raising the nose, especially during takeoff and landing. Loading in a tail-heavy condition has a most serious effect upon longitudinal stability, and can reduce the airplane’s capability to recover from stalls and spins. Another undesirable characteristic produced from tail-heavy loading is that it produces very light control forces. This makes it easy for the pilot to inadvertently overstress the airplane.
Limits for the location of the airplane’s center of gravity are established by the manufacturer. These are the fore and aft limits beyond which the CG should not be located for flight. These limits are published for each airplane in the Type Certification Data Sheet or Aircraft Specification. If, after loading, the CG is not within the allowable limits, it will be necessary to relocate some items within the airplane before flight is attempted.
The forward center of gravity limit is often established at a location which is determined by the landing characteristics of the airplane. It may be possible to maintain stable and safe cruising flight if the CG is located ahead of the prescribed forward limit; but during landing which is one of the most critical phases of flight, exceeding the forward CG limit may cause problems. Manufacturers purposely place the forward CG limit as far rearward as possible to aid pilots in avoiding damage to the airplane when landing.
A restricted forward center of gravity limit is also specified to assure that sufficient elevator deflection is available at minimum airspeed. When structural limitations or large stick forces do not limit the forward CG position, it is located at the position where full-up elevator is required to obtain a high angle of attack for landing.
The aft center of gravity limit is the most rearward position at which the CG can be located for the most critical maneuver or operation. As the CG moves aft, a less stable condition occurs which decreases the ability of the airplane to right itself after maneuvering or after disturbances by gusts.
For some airplanes the CG limits, both fore and aft, may be specified to vary as gross weight changes. They may also be changed for certain operations such as acrobatic flight, retraction of the landing gear, or the installation of special loads and devices which change the flight characteristics.
The actual location of the CG can be altered by many variable factors and is usually controlled by the pilot. Placement of baggage and cargo items determine the CG location. The assignment of seats to passengers can also be used as a means of obtaining a favorable balance. If the airplane is tail-heavy, it is only logical to place heavy passengers in forward seats.
Management of Weight and Balance Control
Weight and balance control should be a matter of concern to all pilots. The pilot has control over loading and fuel management (the two variable factors which can change both total weight and CG location) of a particular airplane.
The airplane owner or operator should make certain that up-to-date information is available in the airplane for the pilot’s use, and should ensure that appropriate entries are made in the airplane records when repairs or modifications have been accomplished. Weight changes must be accounted for and the proper notations made in weight and balance records. The equipment list must be updated if appropriate. Without such information, the pilot has no foundation upon which to base the necessary calculations and decisions.
Terms and Definitions
The pilot should be familiar with terms used in working the problems
related to weight and balance. The following list of terms and their definitions
is well standardized, and knowledge of these terms will aid the pilot to
better understand weight and balance calculations of any airplane.
• Arm (moment arm)—is the horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of an item. The algebraic sign is plus (+) if measured aft of the datum, and minus (–) if measured forward of the datum.
• Center of gravity (CG)—is the point about which an airplane would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. It is the mass center of the airplane, or the theoretical point at which the entire weight of the airplane is assumed to be concentrated. It may be expressed in inches from the reference datum, or in percent of mean aerodynamic chord (MAC).
• Center of gravity limits—are the specified forward and aft points within which the CG must be located during flight. These limits are indicated on pertinent airplane specifications.
• Center of gravity range—is the distance between the forward and aft CG limits indicated on pertinent airplane specifications.
• Datum (reference datum)—is an imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken. The datum is established by the manufacturer. Once the datum has been selected, all moment arms and the location of CG range are measured from this point.
• Delta—is a Greek letter expressed by the symbol D to indicate a change of values. As an example, D CG indicates a change (or movement) of the CG.
• Fuel load—is the expendable part of the load of the airplane. It includes only usable fuel, not fuel required to fill the lines or that which remains trapped in the tank sumps.
• Moment— is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Moments are expressed in pound-inches (lb-in). Total moment is the weight of the airplane multiplied by the distance between the datum and the CG.
• Moment index (or index)—is a moment divided by a constant such as 100, 1,000, or 10,000. The purpose of using a moment index is to simplify weight and balance computations of airplanes where heavy items and long arms result in large, unmanageable numbers.
• Mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)—is the average distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing.
• Standard weights—have been established for numerous items involved in weight and balance computations. These weights should not be used if actual weights are available. Some of the standard weights are:
and passenger 170 lb each
Gasoline 6 lb/US gal
Oil 7.5 lb/US gal
Water 8.35 lb/US gal
• Station—is a location in the airplane which is identified by a number designating its distance in inches from the datum. The datum is, therefore, identified as station zero. An item located at station +50 would have an arm of 50 inches.
• Useful load—is the weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil. It is the empty weight subtracted from the maximum allowable gross weight. This term applies to general aviation aircraft only.
• Weight, basic empty—consists of the airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that have fixed locations and are permanently installed in the airplane. It includes optional and special equipment, fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, unusable (residual) fuel, and full engine oil (some older aircraft only include undrainable residual oil; refer to the aircraft weight and balance documents).
Control of Loading—General Aviation Airplanes
Before any flight, the pilot should determine the weight and balance condition of the airplane. Simple and orderly procedures, based on sound principles, have been devised by airplane manufacturers for the determination of loading conditions. The pilot must use these procedures and exercise good judgment. In many modern airplanes, it is not possible to fill all seats, baggage compartments, and fuel tanks, and still remain within the approved weight and balance limits. If the maximum passenger load is carried, the pilot must often reduce the fuel load or reduce the amount of baggage.
Basic Principles of Weight and Balance Computations
It might be advantageous at this point to review and discuss some
of the basic principles of how weight and balance can be determined. The
following method of computation can be applied to any object or vehicle
where weight and balance information is essential; but to fulfill the purpose
of this handbook, it is directed primarily toward the airplane.
By determining the weight of the empty airplane and adding the weight of everything loaded on the airplane, a total weight can be determined. This is quite simple; but to distribute this weight in such a manner that the entire mass of the loaded airplane is balanced around a point (CG) which must be located within specified limits presents a greater problem, particularly if the basic principles of weight and balance are not understood.
|The point where the airplane will balance can be determined by locating
the center of gravity, which is, as stated in the definitions of terms,
the imaginary point where all the weight is concentrated. To provide the
necessary balance between longitudinal stability and elevator control,
the center of gravity is usually located slightly forward of the center
of lift. This loading condition causes a nosedown tendency in flight, which
is desirable during flight at a high angle of attack and slow speeds.
A safe zone within which the balance point (CG) must fall is called the CG range. The extremities of the range are called the forward CG limits and aft CG limits. These limits are usually specified in inches, along the longitudinal axis of the airplane, measured from a datum reference. The datum is an arbitrary point, established by airplane designers, which may vary in location between different airplanes. [Figure 4-2]
The distance from the datum to any component part of the airplane, or
any object loaded on the airplane, is called the arm. When the object or
component is located aft of the datum, it is measured in positive inches;
if located forward of the datum, it is measured as negative inches, or
minus inches. The location of the object or part is often referred to as
the station. If the weight of any object or component is multiplied by
the distance from the datum (arm), the product is the moment. The moment
is the measurement of the gravitational force which causes a tendency of
the weight to rotate about a point or axis and is expressed in pound-inches.
|To illustrate, assume a weight of 50 pounds is placed on
the board at a station or point 100 inches from the datum. The downward
force of the weight can be determined by multiplying 50 pounds by 100 inches,
which produces a moment of 5,000 lb-in. [Figure 4-3]
To establish a balance, a total of 5,000 lb-in must be applied to the
other end of the board. Any combination of weight and distance which, when
multiplied, produces 5,000 lb-in moment will balance the board. For example,
as illustrated in figure 4-4, if a 100-pound weight is placed at a point
(station) 25 inches from the datum, and another 50-pound weight is placed
at a point (station) 50 inches from the datum, the sum of the product of
the two weights and their distances will total a moment of 5,000 lb-in
which will balance the board.
|Weight and Balance Restrictions
The airplane’s weight and balance restrictions should be closely followed. The loading conditions and empty weight of a particular airplane may differ from that found in the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot’s Operating Handbook because modifications or equipment changes may have been made. Sample loading problems in the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot’s Operating Handbook are intended for guidance only; therefore, each airplane must be treated separately. Although an airplane is certified for a specified maximum gross takeoff weight, it will not safely take off with this load under all conditions. Conditions which affect takeoff and climb performance such as high elevations, high temperatures, and high humidity (high density altitudes) may require a reduction in weight before flight is attempted. Other factors to consider prior to takeoff are runway length, runway surface, runway slope, surface wind, and the presence of obstacles. These factors may require a reduction in weight prior to flight.
Other airplanes can be loaded in such a manner that they will be out of CG limits even though the useful load has not been exceeded.
Because of the effects of an out-of-balance or overweight condition, a pilot should always be sure that an airplane is properly loaded.