7-8-1 Section 8. Class C Service Area - Terminal

7-8-1 Application

 Apply Class C service procedures within the designated Class C airspace and the associated outer area. The Class C services are designed to keep ATC informed of all aircraft within the Class C airspace, not to exclude operations. Two-way radio communications and operational transponder are normally required for operations within Class C airspace, but operations without radio communications or transponder can be conducted by letter of agreement, facility directive, or special arrangement with Class C airspace controlling facility.

FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.
Part 91.215, ATC Transponder and Altitude Reporting Equipment and Use.

7-8-2 Class C Services

 a. Class C services include the following:
  1. Sequencing of all aircraft to the primary airport.
  2. Standard IFR services to IFR aircraft.
  3. Separation, traffic advisories, and safety alerts between IFR and VFR aircraft.
  4. Mandatory traffic advisories and safety alerts between VFR aircraft.
 b. Provide Class C services to all aircraft operating within the Class C airspace.
 c. Provide Class C services to all participating aircraft in the outer area.
 d. Aircraft should not normally be held. However, if holding is necessary, inform the pilot of the expected length of delay.
 e. When a radar outage occurs, advise aircraft that Class C services are not available and, if appropriate, when to contact the tower.

FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.

7-8-3 Separation

 Separate VFR aircraft from IFR aircraft by any one of the following:
 a. Visual separation as specified in paragraph 7-2-1, paragraph 7-4-2, and paragraph 7-6-7.

Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories in accordance with paragraph 2-1-20.

 b. 500 feet vertical separation;
 c. Target resolution when using broadband radar systems. The application of target resolution at locations not using broadband radar will be individually approved by the Program Director for Air Traffic Operations, ATO-1.

Apply the provisions of Minima, paragraph 5-5-3, when wake turbulence separation is required.

FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.

7-8-4 Establishing Two-Way Communications

 Class C service requires pilots to establish two-way radio communications before entering the Class C airspace. If the controller responds to a radio call with, "(a/c callsign) standby," radio communications have been established and the pilot can enter Class C airspace. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate provision of Class C services, inform the pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until conditions permit the services to be provided.


FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.

7-8-5 Altitude Assignments

 a. When necessary to assign altitudes to VFR aircraft, assign altitudes that meet the MVA, minimum safe altitude, or minimum IFR altitude criteria.
 b. Aircraft assigned altitudes which are contrary to FAR 91.159 shall be advised to resume altitudes appropriate for the direction of flight when the altitude is no longer needed for separation, when leaving the outer area, or when terminating Class C service.


FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.

7-8-6 Exceptions

 a. VFR helicopters need not be separated from IFR helicopters. Traffic information and safety alerts shall be issued as appropriate.
 b. Hot air balloons need not be separated from IFR aircraft. Traffic information and safety alerts shall be issued as appropriate.

7-8-7 Adjacent Airport Operations

 a. Aircraft that will penetrate the Class C airspace after departing controlled airports within or adjacent to Class C airspace shall be provided the same services as those aircraft departing the primary airport. Procedures for handling this situation shall be covered in a letter of agreement or a facility directive as appropriate.
 b. Aircraft departing uncontrolled airports within Class C airspace shall be handled using procedures advertised in a letter to airmen.

7-8-8 Termination of Service

 Unless aircraft are landing at secondary airports or have requested termination of service while in the outer area, provide services until the aircraft departs the associated outer area. Terminate ARSA service to aircraft landing at other than the primary airport at a sufficient distance from the airport to allow the pilot to change to the appropriate frequency for traffic and airport information.

 CONTACT (facility identification)