An interpole is a pole placed between the main poles of a generator. An example of interpole placement is shown in Figure 10-270B. This is a simple two-pole generator with two interpoles.
An interpole has the same polarity as the next main pole in the direction of rotation. The magnetic flux produced by an interpole causes the current in the armature to change direction as an armature winding passes under it. This cancels the electromagnetic fields about the armature windings. The magnetic strength of the interpoles varies with the load on the generator; and since field distortion varies with the load, the magnetic field of the interpoles counteracts the effects of the field set up around the armature windings and minimizes field distortion. Thus, the interpole tends to keep the neutral plane in the same position for all loads on the generator; therefore, field distortion is reduced by the interpoles, and the efficiency, output, and service life of the brushes are improved.
Types of DC Generators
There are three types of DC generators: series wound, shunt wound, and shunt series or compound wound. The difference in type depends on the relationship of the field winding to the external circuit.
Series Wound DC Generators
The field winding of a series generator is connected in series with the external circuit, called the load. [Figure 10-271] The field coils are composed of a few turns of large wire; the magnetic field strength depends more on the current flow rather than the number of turns in the coil. Series generators have very poor voltage regulation under changing load, since the greater the current through the field coils to the external circuit, the greater the induced emf and the greater the terminal or output voltage. Therefore, when the load is increased, the voltage increases; likewise, when the load is decreased, the
voltage decreases. The output voltage of a series wound generator may be controlled by a rheostat in parallel with the field windings, as shown in Figure 10-271A. Since the series wound generator has such poor regulation, it is never employed as an airplane generator. Generators in airplanes have field windings, which are connected either in shunt or in compound.
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