Shunt DC Motor

In the shunt motor, the field winding is connected in parallel or in shunt with the armature winding. [Figure 10-285] The resistance in the field winding is high. Since the field winding is connected directly across the power supply, the current through the field is constant. The field current does not vary with motor speed, as in the series motor and, therefore, the torque of the shunt motor will vary only with the current through the armature. The torque developed at starting is less than that developed by a series motor of equal size.

The speed of the shunt motor varies very little with changes in load. When all load is removed, it assumes a speed slightly higher than the loaded speed. This motor is particularly suitable for use when constant speed is desired and when high starting torque is not needed.

Compound DC Motor

The compound motor is a combination of the series and shunt motors. There are two windings in the field: a shunt winding and a series winding. A schematic of a compound motor is shown in Figure 10-286. The shunt winding is composed of many turns of fine wire and is connected in parallel with the armature winding. The series winding consists of a few turns of large wire and is connected in series with the armature winding. The starting torque is higher than in the shunt motor but lower than in the series motor. Variation of speed with load is less than in a series wound motor but greater than in a shunt motor. The compound motor is used whenever the combined characteristics of the series and shunt motors are desired.

Like the compound generator, the compound motor has both series and shunt field windings. The series winding may either aid the shunt wind (cumulative compound) or oppose the shunt winding (differential compound). The starting and load characteristics of the cumulative compound motor are somewhere between those of the series and those of the shunt motor.

Because of the series field, the cumulative compound motor has a higher starting torque than a shunt motor. Cumulative compound motors are used in driving machines, which are subject to sudden changes in load. They are also used where a high starting torque is desired, but a series motor cannot be used easily.

In the differential compound motor, an increase in load creates an increase in current and a decrease in total flux in this type of motor. These two tend to offset each other and the result is a practically constant speed. However, since an increase in load tends to decrease the field strength, the speed characteristic becomes unstable. Rarely is this type of motor used in aircraft systems.

A graph of the variation in speed with changes of load of the various types of DC motors is shown in Figure 10-287.

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