Energy Losses in DC Motors
Losses occur when electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy (in the motor), or mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy (in the generator). For the machine to be efficient, these losses must be kept to a minimum. Some losses are electrical; others are mechanical. Electrical losses are classified as copper losses and iron losses; mechanical losses occur in overcoming the friction of various parts of the machine.
Copper losses occur when electrons are forced through the copper windings of the armature and the field. These losses are proportional to the square of the current. They are sometimes called I2R losses, since they are due to the power dissipated in the form of heat in the resistance of the field and armature windings.
Iron losses are subdivided in hysteresis and eddy current losses. Hysteresis losses are caused by the armature revolving in an alternating magnetic field. It, therefore, becomes magnetized first in one direction and then in the other. The residual magnetism of the iron or steel of which the armature is made causes these losses. Since the field magnets are always magnetized in one direction (DC field), they have no hysteresis losses.
Eddy current losses occur because the iron core of the armature is a conductor revolving in a magnetic field. This sets up an emf across portions of the core, causing currents to flow within the core. These currents heat the core and, if they become excessive, may damage the windings. As far as the output is concerned, the power consumed by eddy currents is a loss. To reduce eddy currents to a minimum, a laminated core usually is used. A laminated core is made of thin sheets of iron electrically insulated from each other. The insulation between laminations reduces eddy currents, because it is “transverse" to the direction in which these currents tend to flow. However, it has no effect on the magnetic circuit. The thinner the laminations, the more effectively this method reduces eddy current losses.
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