Arc Fault Circuit Breaker
In recent years, the arc fault circuit breaker has begun to provide an additional layer of protection beyond that of the thermal protection already provided by conventional circuit breakers. The arc fault circuit breaker monitors the circuit for an electrical arcing signature, which can indicate possible wiring faults and unsafe conditions. These conditions can lead to fires or loss of power to critical systems. The arc fault circuit breaker is only beginning to make an appearance in the aircraft industry and is not widely used like the thermal type of circuit breaker.
A thermal protector, or switch, is used to protect a motor. It is designed to open the circuit automatically whenever the temperature of the motor becomes excessively high. It has two positions — open and closed. The most common use for a thermal switch is to keep a motor from overheating. If a malfunction in the motor causes it to overheat, the thermal switch will break the circuit intermittently.
The thermal switch contains a bimetallic disk, or strip, which bends and breaks the circuit when it is heated. This occurs because one of the metals expands more than the other when they are subjected to the same temperature. When the strip or disk cools, the metals contract and the strip returns to its original position and closes the circuit.
Components in the electrical circuits are typically not all intended to operate continuously or automatically. Most of them are meant to operate at certain times, under certain conditions, to perform very definite functions. There must be some means of controlling their operation. Either a switch, or a relay, or both may be included in the circuit for this purpose.
Switches control the current flow in most aircraft electrical circuits. A switch is used to start, to stop, or to change the direction of the current flow in the circuit. The switch in each circuit must be able to carry the normal current of the circuit and must be insulated heavily enough for the voltage of the circuit.
An understanding of some basic definitions of the switch is necessary before any of the switch types are discussed. The number of poles, throws, and positions they have designates toggle switches, as well as some other type of switches.
Pole: the switch’s movable blade or contactor. The number of poles is equal to the number of circuits, or paths for current flow, that can be completed through the switch at any one time.
Throw: indicates the number of circuits, or paths for current, that it is possible to complete through the switch with each pole or contactor.
Positions: indicates the number of places at which the operating device (toggle, plunger, and so forth) will come to rest and at the same time open or close one or more circuits.
Single-Pole, Single-Throw (SPST) The single-pole, single-throw switch allows a connection between two contacts. One of two conditions will exist. Either the circuit is open in one position or closed in the other position. The schematic symbol for this switch is shown in Figure 10-68.
Single-Pole, Double-Throw (SPDT) The single-pole, double-throw switch is shown in Figure 10-69. With this switch, contact between one contact can be made between one contact and the other.
Double-Pole, Single-Throw (DPST) The double-pole, single-throw switch connection can be made between one set of contacts and either of two other sets of contacts. The schematic symbol for this switch is shown in Figure 10-70.
Double-Pole, Double-Throw (DPDT) The schematic symbol for the double-pole, doublethrow switch is shown in Figure 10-71. This type of switch makes a connection from one set of contacts to either of two other sets of contacts.
A toggle switch that is spring-loaded to the OFF position and must be held in the ON position to complete the circuit is a momentary contact two-position switch. One that will come to rest at either of two positions, opening the circuit in one position and closing it in another, is a two-position switch. A toggle switch that will come to rest at any one of three positions is a three-position switch.
A switch that stays open, except when it is held in the closed position, is a normally open switch (usually identified as NO). One that stays closed, except when it is held in the open position is a normally closed switch (NC). Both kinds are spring loaded to their normal position and will return to that position as soon as they are released.
Locking toggles require the operator to pull out on the switch toggle before moving it in to another position. Once in the new position, the switch toggle is release back into a lock, which then prevents the switch from inadvertently being moved.
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