Chapter 12. Publications, Forms, & Records
14 CFR Part 33 — Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines
Each of the four preceding 14 CFR regulations require that the engine used in the aircraft must be “type certificated." Part 33 details the requirements for both reciprocating and turbine style aircraft engines. It not only specifies the design and construction requirements, but also the “block test" requirements that subject the engine to extremely demanding testing in order to prove its capability of enduring the stresses of powering the aircraft.
14 CFR Part 35 — Airworthiness Standards: Propellers
Just as each engine used on an aircraft must have a type certificate, the propeller must also be type certificated. This part is arranged the same way that part 33 is, in that subpart B specifies design and construction and subpart C covers tests and inspections.
14 CFR Part 39 — Airworthiness Directives
In spite of all the emphasis on proper design and certification testing, sometimes the actual day-to-day use of the aircraft causes unanticipated wear or failure to occur. When that happens, if the FAA determines that the wear or failure represents an unsafe condition, and that the condition is likely to exist in other products of the same type of design, it will issue an AD. Actual AD notes are not included in part 39, but rather are printed in the Federal Register and are linked to this part as amendments to part 39, §39.13. AD notes are legally enforceable rules that apply to aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.
14 CFR Part 43 — Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration
This regulation represents the heart of aviation maintenance, and is the second of the “Big Three" regulations previously identified. The 13 rules and six appendices contained within part 43 provide the standard for maintaining all 185,000 civilian aircraft currently registered in the United States. Note that the entire part 43 triangle lies to the right of the vertical line, indicating its relationship to maintaining continued airworthiness. A more detailed explanation of this regulation is presented later in this text. [Figure 12-5]
14 CFR Part 45 — Identification and Registration Marking
Part 45 identifies the requirements for the identification of aircraft, engines, propellers, certain replacement and modification parts, and the nationality and registration marking required on U.S.-registered aircraft. All type-certificated products must have the following information on a fireproof dataplate or similar approved fireproof method.
Replacement and modification parts, which are produced in accordance with a parts manufacturing approval (PMA) (14 CFR §21.303), must have the following information permanently and legibly marked:
If a part has a specified replacement time, inspection interval, or other related procedure specification in the maintenance manual or Instruction for Continued Airworthiness (ICA), that part must have a part number and a serial number (or the equivalent of each).
The manufacturer of a life-limited part must either provide marking instructions for that part, or state that the part cannot be marked without a compromise to its integrity.
Exceptions are made for the identification of parts that are too small to be practical to mark the required data.
Nationality and registration marks (commonly known as the N-number for U.S.-registered aircraft) can vary in size, depending on the year that the aircraft was built, and whether or not the aircraft has been repainted. The most common size is at least 12 inches in height. Small aircraft built at least 30 years ago or replicas of these, or experimental exhibition or amateur-built aircraft may use letters at least 2 inches in height. Only a few aircraft are authorized to display registration markings of at least 3 inches. Note that this regulation sits directly on the vertical line in Figure 12-5 indicating that it applies to both original and recurrent airworthiness. [Figure 12-5]
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