Third Class Lever
There are occasions when it is desirable to speed up the movement of the resistance even though a large amount of effort must be used. Levers that help accomplish this are third class levers. As shown in Figure 3-9, the fulcrum is at one end of the lever and the weight or resistance to be overcome is at the other end, with the effort applied at some point between. Third class levers are easily recognized because the effort is applied between the fulcrum and the resistance. The retractable main landing gear on an airplane is a good example of a third class lever. The top of the landing gear, where it attaches to the airplane, is the pivot point. The wheel
and brake assembly at the bottom of the landing gear is the resistance. The hydraulic actuator that makes the gear retract is attached somewhere in the middle, and that is the applied effort.
Pulleys are simple machines in the form of a wheel mounted on a fixed axis and supported by a frame. The wheel, or disk, is normally grooved to accommodate a rope. The wheel is sometimes referred to as a “sheave" (sometimes “sheaf"). The frame that supports the wheel is called a block. A block and tackle consists of a pair of blocks. Each block contains one or more pulleys and a rope connecting the pulley(s) of each block.
Single Fixed Pulley
A single fixed pulley is really a first class lever with equal arms. In Figure 3-10, the arm from point “R" to point “F" is equal to the arm from point “F" to point “E" (both distances being equal to the radius of the pulley). When a first class lever has equal arms, the mechanical advantage is 1. Thus, the force of the pull on the rope must be equal to the weight of the object being lifted. The only advantage of a single fixed pulley is to change the direction of the force, or pull on the rope.
Single Movable Pulley
A single pulley can be used to magnify the force exerted. In Figure 3-11, the pulley is movable, and both ropes extending up from the pulley are sharing in the support of the weight. This single movable pulley acts like a second class lever, with the effort arm (EF) being the diameter of the pulley and the resistance arm (FR) being the radius of the pulley. This type of pulley would have a mechanical advantage of two because the diameter of the pulley is double the radius of the pulley. In use, if someone pulled in 4 ft of the effort rope, the weight would only rise off the floor 2 ft. If the weight was 100 lb, the effort applied would only need to be 50 lb. With this type of pulley, the effort will always be one-half of the weight being lifted.
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