Boundary Layer Control
One way of keeping the boundary layer air under control, or lessening its negative effect, is to make the wing’s surface as smooth as possible and to keep it free of dirt and debris. As the friction between the air and the surface of the wing increases, the boundary layer thickens and becomes more turbulent and eventually a wing stall occurs. With a smooth and clean wing surface, the onset of a stall is delayed and the wing can operate at a higher angle of attack. One of the reasons ice forming on a wing can be such a serious problem is because of its effect on boundary layer air. On a high-speed airplane, even a few bugs splattered on the wing’s leading edge can negatively affect boundary layer air.
Other methods of controlling boundary layer air include wing leading edge slots, air suction through small holes on the wing’s upper surface, and the use of devices called vortex generators.
A wing leading edge slot is a duct that allows air to flow from the bottom of the wing, through the duct, to the top of the wing. As the air flows to the top of the wing, it is directed along the wing’s surface at a high velocity and helps keep the boundary layer from becoming turbulent and separating from the wing’s surface.
Another way of controlling boundary layer air is to create a suction on the top of the wing through a large number of small holes. The suction on the top of the wing draws away the slow-moving turbulent air, and helps keep the remainder of the airflow in contact with the wing.
Vortex generators are used on airplanes that fly at high subsonic speed, where the velocity of the air on the top of the wing can reach Mach 1. As the air reaches Mach 1 velocity, a shock wave forms on the top of the wing, and the subsequent shock wave causes the air to separate from the wing’s upper surface. Vortex generators are short airfoils, arranged in pairs, located on the wing’s upper surface. They are positioned such that they pull high-energy air down into the boundary layer region and prevent airflow separation.
Wingtip vortices are caused by the air beneath the wing, which is at the higher pressure, flowing over the wingtip and up toward the top of the wing. The end result is a spiral or vortex that trails behind the wingtip anytime lift is being produced. This vortex is also referred to as wake turbulence, and is a significant factor in determining how closely one airplane can follow behind another on approach to land. The wake turbulence of a large airplane can cause a smaller airplane, if it is following too closely, to be thrown out of control. Vortices from the wing and from the horizontal stabilizer are quite visible on the MD-11 shown in Figure 3-59.
Upwash and downwash refer to the effect an airfoil has on the free airstream. Upwash is the deflection of the oncoming airstream, causing it to flow up and over the wing. Downwash is the downward deflection of the airstream after it has passed over the wing and is leaving the trailing edge. This downward deflection is what creates the action and reaction described under lift and Newton’s third law.
Axes of an Aircraft
An airplane in flight is controlled around one or more of three axes of rotation. These axes of rotation are the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical. On the airplane, all three axes intersect at the center of gravity (CG). As the airplane pivots on one of these axes, it is in essence pivoting around the center of gravity (CG). The center of gravity is also referred to as the center of rotation.
On the brightly colored airplane shown in Figure 3-60, the three axes are shown in the colors red (vertical axis), blue (longitudinal axis), and orange (lateral axis). The flight control that makes the airplane move around the axis is shown in a matching color.
The rudder, in red, causes the airplane to move around the vertical axis and this movement is described as being a yaw. The elevator, in orange, causes the airplane to move around the lateral axis and this movement is described as being a pitch. The ailerons, in blue, cause the airplane to move around the longitudinal axis and this movement is described as being a roll.
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