Supplemental Lift-Modifying Devices
If the wing of an airplane was designed to produce the maximum lift possible at low airspeed, to accommodate takeoffs and landings, it would not be suited for higher speed flight because of the enormous amount of drag it would produce. To give the wing the ability to produce maximum low speed lift without being drag prohibitive, retractable high lift devices, such as flaps and slats, are utilized.
The most often used lift-modifying device, for small airplanes and large, is the wing flap. Flaps can be installed on the leading edge or trailing edge, with the leading edge versions used only on larger airplanes. Flaps change the camber of the wing, and they increase both the lift and the drag for any given angle of attack. The four different types of flaps in use are the plain, split, slotted, and Fowler. [Figure 3-72]
Plain flaps attach to the trailing edge of the wing, inboard of the ailerons, and form part of the wing’s overall surface. When deployed downward, they increase the effective camber of the wing and the wing’s chord line. Both of these factors cause the wing to create more lift and more drag.
The split flap attaches to the bottom of the wing, and deploys downward without changing the top surface of the wing. This type of flap creates more drag than the plain flap because of the increase in turbulence.
The slotted flap is similar to the plain flap, except when it deploys, the leading edge drops down a small amount. By having the leading edge drop down slightly, a slot opens up, which lets some of the high pressure air on the bottom of the wing flow over the top of the flap. This additional airflow over the top of the flap produces additional lift.
The Fowler flap attaches to the back of the wing using a track and roller system. When it deploys, it moves aft in addition to deflecting downward. This increases the total wing area, in addition to increasing the wing camber and chord line. This type of flap is the most effective of the four types, and it is the type used on commercial airliners and business jets.
Leading Edge Slots
Leading edge slots are ducts or passages in the leading edge of a wing that allow high pressure air from the bottom of the wing to flow to the top of the wing. This ducted air flows over the top of the wing at a high velocity and helps keep the boundary layer air from becoming turbulent and separating from the wing. Slots are often placed on the part of the wing ahead of the ailerons, so during a wing stall, the inboard part of the wing stalls first and the ailerons remain effective.
Leading Edge Slats
The flight controls of a large commercial airliner are shown in Figure 3-73. The controls by color are as follows:
1. All aerodynamic tabs are shown in green.
2. All leading and trailing edge high lift devices are shown in red (leading edge flaps and slats, trailing edge inboard and outboard flaps).
3. The tail mounted primary flight controls are in yellow (rudder and elevator).
4. The wing mounted primary flight controls are in purple (inboard and outboard aileron).
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