Copper and Copper Alloys
Copper is one of the most widely distributed metals. It is the only reddish colored metal and is second only to silver in electrical conductivity. Its use as a structural material is limited because of its great weight. However, some of its outstanding characteristics, such as its high electrical and heat conductivity, in many cases overbalance the weight factor.
Because it is very malleable and ductile, copper is ideal for making wire. It is corroded by salt water but is not affected by fresh water. The ultimate tensile strength of copper varies greatly. For cast copper, the tensile strength is about 25,000 psi, and when cold rolled or cold drawn its tensile strength increases to a range of 40,000 to 67,000 psi.
In aircraft, copper is used primarily in the electrical system for bus bars, bonding, and as lockwire.
Beryllium copper is one of the most successful of all the copper base alloys. It is a recently developed alloy containing about 97 percent copper, 2 percent beryllium, and sufficient nickel to increase the percentage of elongation. The most valuable feature of this metal is that the physical properties can be greatly stepped up by heat treatment, the tensile strength rising from 70,000 psi in the annealed state to 200,000 psi in the heat-treated state. The resistance of beryllium copper to fatigue and wear makes it suitable for diaphragms, precision bearings and bushings, ball cages, and spring washers.
Brass is a copper alloy containing zinc and small amounts of aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, magnesium, nickel, phosphorous, and tin. Brass with a zinc content of 30 to 35 percent is very ductile, but that containing 45 percent has relatively high strength.
Muntz metal is a brass composed of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc. It has excellent corrosion resistant qualities in salt water. Its strength can be increased by heat treatment. As cast, this metal has an ultimate tensile strength of 50,000 psi, and it can be elongated 18 percent. It is used in making bolts and nuts, as well as parts that come in contact with salt water.
Red brass, sometimes termed “bronze" because of its tin content, is used in fuel and oil line fittings. This metal has good casting and finishing properties and machines freely.
Bronzes are copper alloys containing tin. The true bronzes have up to 25 percent tin, but those with less than 11 percent are most useful, especially for such items as tube fittings in aircraft.
Among the copper alloys are the copper aluminum alloys, of which the aluminum bronzes rank very high in aircraft usage. They would find greater usefulness in structures if it were not for their strength to weight ratio as compared with alloy steels. Wrought aluminum bronzes are almost as strong and ductile as medium carbon steel, and they possess a high degree of resistance to corrosion by air, salt water, and chemicals. They are readily forged, hot or cold rolled, and many react to heat treatment.
These copper base alloys contain up to 16 percent of aluminum (usually 5 to 11 percent), to which other metals, such as iron, nickel, or manganese, may be added. Aluminum bronzes have good tearing qualities, great strength, hardness, and resistance to both shock and fatigue. Because of these properties, they are used for diaphragms, gears, and pumps. Aluminum bronzes are available in rods, bars, plates, sheets, strips, and forgings.
Cast aluminum bronzes, using about 89 percent copper, 9 percent aluminum, and 2 percent of other elements, have high strength combined with ductility, and are resistant to corrosion, shock, and fatigue. Because of these properties, cast aluminum bronze is used in bearings and pump parts. These alloys are useful in areas exposed to salt water and corrosive gases.
Manganese bronze is an exceptionally high strength, tough, corrosion resistant copper zinc alloy containing aluminum, manganese, iron and, occasionally, nickel or tin. This metal can be formed, extruded, drawn, or rolled to any desired shape. In rod form, it is generally used for machined parts, for aircraft landing gears and brackets.
Silicon bronze is a more recent development composed of about 95 percent copper, 3 percent silicon, and 2 percent manganese, zinc, iron, tin, and aluminum. Although not a bronze in the true sense because of its small tin content, silicon bronze has high strength and great corrosion resistance.
Monel, the leading high nickel alloy, combines the properties of high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. This metal consists of 68 percent nickel, 29 percent copper, 0.2 percent iron, 1 percent manganese, and 1.8 percent of other elements. It cannot be hardened by heat treatment.
Monel, adaptable to casting and hot or cold working, can be successfully welded. It has working properties similar to those of steel. When forged and annealed, it has a tensile strength of 80,000 psi. This can be increased by cold working to 125,000 psi, sufficient for classification among the tough alloys.
Monel has been successfully used for gears and chains to operate retractable landing gears, and for structural parts subject to corrosion. In aircraft, Monel is used for parts demanding both strength and high resistance to corrosion, such as exhaust manifolds and carburetor needle valves and sleeves.
K-Monel is a nonferrous alloy containing mainly nickel, copper, and aluminum. It is produced by adding a small amount of aluminum to the Monel formula. It is corrosion resistant and capable of being hardened by heat treatment.
K-Monel has been successfully used for gears, and structural members in aircraft which are subjected to corrosive attacks. This alloy is nonmagnetic at all temperatures. K-Monel sheet has been successfully welded by both oxyacetylene and electric arc welding.
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