Forging is the process of forming a product by hammering or pressing. When the material is forged below the recrystallization temperature, it is called cold forged. When worked above the recrystallization temperature, it is referred to as hot forged. Drop forging is a hammering process that uses a hot ingot that is placed between a pair of formed dies in a machine called a drop hammer and a weight of several tons is dropped on the upper die. This results in the hot metal being forced to take the form of the dies. Because the process is very rapid, the grain structure of the metal is altered, resulting in a significant increase in the strength of the finished part.


Casting is formed by melting the metal and pouring it into a mold of the desired shape. Since plastic deformation of the metal does not occur, no alteration of the grain shape or orientation is possible. The gain size of the metal can be controlled by the cooling rate, the alloys of the metal, and the thermal treatment. Castings are normally lower in strength and are more brittle than a wrought product of the same material. For intricate shapes or items with internal passages, such as turbine blades, casting may be the most economical process. Except for engine parts, most metal components found on an aircraft are wrought instead of cast.

All metal products start in the form of casting. Wrought metals are converted from cast ingots by plastic deformation. For high strength aluminum alloys, an 80 to 90 percent reduction (dimensional change in thickness) of the material is required to obtain the high mechanical properties of a fully wrought structure.

Both iron and aluminum alloys are cast for aircraft uses. Cast iron contains 6 to 8 percent carbon and silicon. Cast iron is a hard unmalleable pig iron made by casting or pouring into a mold. Cast aluminum alloy has been heated to its molten state and poured into a mold to give it the desired shape.

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