Classification of Threads
Aircraft bolts, screws, and nuts are threaded in the NC (American National Coarse) thread series, the NF (American National Fine) thread series, the UNC (American Standard Unified Coarse) thread series, or the UNF (American Standard Unified Fine) thread series. There is one difference between the American National series and the American Standard Unified series that should be pointed out. In the 1-inch diameter size, the NF thread specifies14 threads per inch (1-14 NF), while the UNF thread specifies 12 threads per inch (1-12 UNF). Both types of threads are designated by the number of times the incline (threads) rotates around a 1-inch length of a given diameter bolt or screw. For example, a 4-28 thread indicates that a 1/4-inch (4/16 inch) diameter bolt has 28 threads in 1 inch of its threaded length.
Threads are also designated by Class of fit. The Class of a thread indicates the tolerance allowed in manufacturing. Class 1 is a loose fit, Class 2 is a free fit, Class 3 is a medium fit, and Class 4 is a close fit. Aircraft bolts are almost always manufactured in the Class 3, medium fit.
A Class 4 fit requires a wrench to turn the nut onto a bolt, whereas a Class 1 fit can easily be turned with the fingers. Generally, aircraft screws are manufactured with a Class 2 thread fit for ease of assembly.
Bolts and nuts are also produced with right-hand and left-hand threads. A right-hand thread tightens when turned clockwise; a left-hand thread tightens when turned counterclockwise.
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