Fluid Line End Fittings
Depending on the type and use, fittings will have either pipe threads or machine threads. Pipe threads are similar to those used in ordinary plumbing and are tapered, both internal and external. External threads are referred to as male threads and internal threads are female threads.
When two fittings are joined, a male into a female, the thread taper forms a seal. Some form of pipe thread lubricant approved for the particular fluid application should be used when joining pipe threads to prevent seizing and high-pressure leakage. Use care when applying thread lubricant so that the lubricant will not enter and contaminate the system. Do not use lubricants on oxygen lines. Oxygen will react with petroleum products and can ignite (special lubricants are available for oxygen systems).
Machine threads have no sealing capability and are similar to those used on common nuts and bolts. This type of fitting is used only to draw connections together or for attachment through bulkheads. A flared tube connection, a crush washer, or a synthetic seal is used to make the connection fluid tight. Machine threads have no taper and will not form a fluid-tight seal. The size of these fittings is given in dash numbers, which equal the nominal o.d. in sixteenths of an inch.
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