Radiographic inspection techniques are used to locate defects or flaws in airframe structures or engines with little or no disassembly. This is in marked contrast to other types of nondestructive testing which usually require removal, disassembly, and stripping of paint from the suspected part before it can be inspected. Due to the radiation risks associated with x-ray, extensive training is required to become a qualified radiographer. Only qualified radiographers are allowed to operate the x-ray units.
Three major steps in the x-ray process discussed in subsequent paragraphs are: (1) exposure to radiation, including preparation, (2) processing of film, and (3) interpretation of the radiograph.
Preparation and Exposure
The factors of radiographic exposure are so interdependent that it is necessary to consider all factors for any particular radiographic exposure. These factors include but are not limited to the following:
Knowledge of the x-ray unitís capabilities should form a background for the other exposure factors. In addition to the unit rating in kilovoltage, the size, portability, ease of manipulation, and exposure particulars of the available equipment should be thoroughly understood.
Previous experience on similar objects is also very helpful in the determination of the overall exposure techniques. A log or record of previous exposures will provide specific data as a guide for future radiographs.
After exposure to x-rays, the latent image on the film is made permanently visible by processing it successively through a developer chemical solution, an acid bath, and a fixing bath, followed by a clear water wash.
From the standpoint of quality assurance, radiographic interpretation is the most important phase of radiography. It is during this phase that an error in judgment can produce disastrous consequences. The efforts of the whole radiographic process are centered in this phase; the part or structure is either accepted or rejected. Conditions of unsoundness or other defects which are overlooked, not understood, or improperly interpreted can destroy the purpose and efforts of radiography and can jeopardize the structural integrity of an entire aircraft. A particular danger is the false sense of security imparted by the acceptance of a part or structure based on improper interpretation.
As a first impression, radiographic interpretation may seem simple, but a closer analysis of the problem soon dispels this impression. The subject of interpretation is so varied and complex that it cannot be covered adequately in this type of document. Instead, this chapter gives only a brief review of basic requirements for radiographic interpretation, including some descriptions of common defects.
Experience has shown that, whenever possible, radiographic interpretation should be conducted close to the radiographic operation. When viewing radiographs, it is helpful to have access to the material being tested. The radiograph can thus be compared directly with the material being tested, and indications due to such things as surface condition or thickness variations can be immediately determined.
The following paragraphs present several factors which must be considered when analyzing a radiograph.
There are three basic categories of flaws: voids, inclusions, and dimensional irregularities. The last category, dimensional irregularities, is not pertinent to these discussions because its prime factor is one of degree, and radiography is not exact. Voids and inclusions may appear on the radiograph in a variety of forms ranging from a two-dimensional plane to a three-dimensional sphere. A crack, tear, or cold shut will most nearly resemble a two-dimensional plane, whereas a cavity will look like a three-dimensional sphere. Other types of flaws, such as shrink, oxide inclusions, porosity, and so forth, will fall somewhere between these two extremes of form.
It is important to analyze the geometry of a flaw, especially for items such as the sharpness of terminal points. For example, in a crack-like flaw the terminal points appear much sharper in a sphere-like flaw, such as a gas cavity. Also, material strength may be adversely affected by flaw shape. A flaw having sharp points could establish a source of localized stress concentration. Spherical flaws affect material strength to a far lesser degree than do sharp pointed flaws. Specifications and reference standards usually stipulate that sharp pointed flaws, such as cracks, cold shuts, and so forth, are cause for rejection.
Material strength is also affected by flaw size. A metallic component of a given area is designed to carry a certain load plus a safety factor. Reducing this area by including a large flaw weakens the part and reduces the safety factor. Some flaws are often permitted in components because of these safety factors; in this case, the interpreter must determine the degree of tolerance or imperfection specified by the design engineer. Both flaw size and flaw shape should be considered carefully, since small flaws with sharp points can be just as bad as large flaws with no sharp points.
Another important consideration in flaw analysis is flaw location. Metallic components are subjected to numerous and varied forces during their effective service life. Generally, the distribution of these forces is not equal in the component or part, and certain critical areas may be rather highly stressed. The interpreter must pay special attention to these areas. Another aspect of flaw location is that certain types of discontinuities close to one another may potentially serve as a source of stress concentrations creating a situation that should be closely scrutinized.
An inclusion is a type of flaw which contains entrapped material. Such flaws may be of greater or lesser density than the item being radiographed. The foregoing discussions on flaw shape, size, and location apply equally to inclusions and to voids. In addition, a flaw containing foreign material could become a source of corrosion.
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