The aviation maintenance technician (AMT) spends a major portion of each day using a wide variety of hand tools to accomplish maintenance tasks. This chapter contains an overview of some of the hand tools an AMT can expect to use. An AMT encounters many special tools as their experience widens; large transport category aircraft have different maintenance tasks from those of a light airplane, and special hand tools are often required when working on complex aircraft.
This chapter outlines the basic knowledge required in using the most common hand tools and measuring instruments used in aircraft repair work. This information, however, cannot replace sound judgment on the part of the individual, nor additional training as the need arises. There are many times when ingenuity and resourcefulness can supplement the basic rules. Sound knowledge is required of these basic rules and of the situations in which they apply. The use of tools may vary, but good practices for safety, care, and storage of tools remain the same.
General Purpose Tools
Hammers and Mallets
Figure 9-1 shows some of the hammers that the aviation mechanic may be required to use. Metal head hammers are usually sized according to the weight of the head without the handle.
Occasionally it is necessary to use a soft-faced hammer, which has a striking surface made of wood, brass, lead, rawhide, hard rubber, or plastic. These hammers are intended for use in forming soft metals and striking surfaces that are easily damaged. Soft-faced hammers should not be used for striking punch heads, bolts, or nails, as using one in this fashion will quickly ruin this type of hammer.
A mallet is a hammer-like tool with a head made of hickory, rawhide, or rubber. It is handy for shaping thin metal parts without causing creases or dents with abrupt corners. Always use a wooden mallet when pounding a wood chisel or a gouge.
When using a hammer or mallet, choose the one best suited for the job. Ensure that the handle is tight. When striking a blow with the hammer, use the forearm as an extension of the handle. Swing the hammer by bending the elbow, not the wrist. Always strike the work squarely with the full face of the hammer. When striking a metal tool with a metal hammer, the use of safety glasses or goggles is strongly encouraged.
Always keep the faces of hammers and mallets smooth and free from dents, chips, or gouges to prevent marring the work.
The screwdriver can be classified by its shape, type of blade, and blade length. It is made for only one purpose, i.e., for loosening or tightening screws or screw head bolts. Figure 9-2 shows several different types of screwdrivers. When using the common screwdriver, select the largest screwdriver whose blade will make a good fit in the screw that is to be turned.
A common screwdriver must fill at least 75 percent of the screw slot. If the screwdriver is the wrong size, it cuts and burrs the screw slot, making it worthless. The damage may be so severe that the use of screw extractor may be required. A screwdriver with the wrong size blade may slip and damage adjacent parts of the structure.
The common screwdriver is used only where slotted head screws or fasteners are found on aircraft. An example of a fastener that requires the use of a common screwdriver is the camlock style fastener that is used to secure the cowling on some aircraft.
The two types of recessed head screws in common use are the Phillips and the Reed & Prince.
Both the Phillips and Reed & Prince recessed heads are optional on several types of screws. As shown in Figure 9-2, the Reed & Prince recessed head forms a perfect cross. The screwdriver used with this screw is pointed on the end. Since the Phillips screw has a slightly larger center in the cross, the Phillips screwdriver is blunt on the end. The Phillips screwdriver is not interchangeable with the Reed & Prince. The use of the wrong type screwdriver results in mutilation of the screwdriver and the screw head. When turning a recessed head screw, use only the proper recessed head screwdriver of the correct size. The most common crosspoint screwdrivers are the Number 1 and Number 2 Phillips.
An offset screwdriver may be used when vertical space is limited. Offset screwdrivers are constructed with both ends bent 90° to the shank handle. By using alternate ends, most screws can be seated or loosened even when the swinging space is limited. Offset screwdrivers are made for both standard and recessed head screws. Ratcheting right angle screwdrivers are also available, and often prove to be indispensable when working in close quarters.
A screwdriver should not be used for chiseling or prying. Do not use a screwdriver to check an electric circuit since an electric arc will burn the tip and make it useless. In some cases, an electric arc may fuse the blade to the unit being checked, creating a short circuit.
When using a screwdriver on a small part, always hold the part in the vise or rest it on a workbench. Do not hold the part in the hand, as the screwdriver may slip and cause serious personal injury.
Replaceable tip screwdrivers, commonly referred to as “10 in 1" screwdrivers, allow for the quick changing of a screwdriver tip, and economical replacement of the tip when it becomes worn. A wide variety of screwdriver tips, including flat, crosspoint (Phillips and Reed & Prince), Torx and square drive tips are available for use with the handles. [Figure 9-3]
The cordless hand-held power screwdriver has replaced most automatic or spiral screwdrivers for the removal of multiple screws from an airframe. Care must be Phillips Screwdriver Phillips Reed & Prince Offset Screwdriver Flat blade screwdriver Figure 9-2. Typical screwdrivers.
exercised when using a power screwdriver; if the slip clutch is set for too high a setting when installing a screw, the screwdriver tip will slip and rotate on top of the screw head, damaging it. The screw should be started by hand, to avoid driving the screw into the nut or nutplate in a cross-threaded manner. To avoid damaging the slot or receptacle in the head of the screw, the use of cordless power drills fitted with a removable tip driver to remove or install screws is not recommended, as the drill does not have a slip-clutch installed.
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