The scriber is designed to serve the aviation mechanic in the same way a pencil or pen serves a writer. In general, it is used to scribe or mark lines on metal surfaces. The scriber is made of tool steel, 4 to 12 inches long, and has two needle pointed ends. One end is bent at a 90° angle for reaching and marking through holes. [Figure 9-33]
Before using a scriber, always inspect the points for sharpness. Be sure the straightedge is flat on the metal and in position for scribing. Tilt the scriber slightly in the direction toward which it will be moved, holding it like a pencil. Keep the scriber’s point close to the guiding edge of the straightedge. The scribed line should be heavy enough to be visible, but no deeper than necessary to serve its purpose.
Dividers and Pencil Compasses
Dividers and pencil compasses have two legs joined at the top by a pivot. They are used to scribe circles and arcs and for transferring measurements from the rule to the work.
Pencil compasses have one leg tapered to a needle point; the other leg has a pencil or pencil lead inserted. Dividers have both legs tapered to needle points.
When using pencil compasses or dividers, the following procedures are suggested:
Calipers are used for measuring diameters and distances or for comparing distances and sizes. The three common types of calipers are inside, outside, and hermaphrodite calipers, such as gear tool calipers. [Figure 9-34]
Outside calipers are used for measuring outside dimensions — for example, the diameter of a piece of round stock. Inside calipers have outward curved legs for measuring inside diameters, such as diameters of holes, the distance between two surfaces, the width of slots, and other similar jobs. A hermaphrodite caliper is generally used as a marking gauge in layout work. It should not be used for precision measurement.
There are four types of micrometer calipers, each designed for a specific use: outside micrometer, inside micrometer, depth micrometer, and thread micrometer.
Micrometers are available in a variety of sizes, either 0 to 1/2 inch, 0 to 1 inch, 1 to 2 inch, 2 to 3 inch, 3 to 4 inch, 4 to 5 inch, or 5 to 6 inch sizes. In addition to the micrometer inscribed with the measurement markings, micrometers equipped with electronic digital liquid crystal display (LCD) readouts are also in common use.
The AMT will use the outside micrometer more often than any other type. It may be used to measure the outside dimensions of shafts, thickness of sheet metal stock, the diameter of drills, and for many other applications. [Figure 9-35]
The smallest measurement which can be made with the use of the steel rule is one sixty-fourth of an inch in common fractions, and one one-hundredth of an inch in decimal fractions. To measure more closely than this (in thousandths and ten-thousandths of an inch), a micrometer is used. If a dimension given in a common fraction is to be measured with the micrometer, the fraction must be converted to its decimal equivalent.
All four types of micrometers are read in the same way. The method of reading an outside micrometer is discussed later in this chapter.
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