Glossary - C

Calorie.   The amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Centigrade.

Camber.   The curvature of a wing as viewed by cross section. A wing has upper camber on its top surface and lower camber on its bottom surface. The upper camber is more pronounced; the lower camber is comparatively flat. This causes the velocity of the airflow immediately above the wing to be much higher than that below the wing.

Capacitance (C).   The property of an electric conductor that characterizes its ability to store an electric charge.

Capacitive reactance (Xc).   The measure of a capacitorís opposition to alternating current.

Capacitor.   An electrical component that stores an electric charge.

Case hardening.   A process in which the surface of a metal is changed chemically by introducing a high carbide or nitride content. Case hardening produces a hard, wear-resistant surface, or case, over a strong, tough core.

Center of gravity (CG).   The point about which the nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments are exactly equal in magnitude.

Center of gravity range.   The center of gravity range for an aircraft is the limits within which the aircraft must balance. It is identified as a forward-most limit (arm) and an aft-most limit (arm).

Centrifugal force.   The apparent force occurring in curvilinear motion acting to deflect objects outward from the axis of rotation. For instance, when pulling out of a dive, it is the force pushing the pilot down in his or her seat.

Centripetal force.   The force in curvilinear motion acting toward the axis of rotation. For instance, when pulling out of a dive, it is the force that the seat exerts on the pilot to offset the centrifugal force.

Charlesí Law.   States that all gases expand and contract in direct proportion to the change in the absolute temperature, provided the pressure is held constant.

Chemical energy.   Energy released from chemical reactions.

Circular magnetization.   The induction of a magnetic field consisting of concentric circles of force about and within a part, which is achieved by passing electric current through the part.

Circumference (of a circle).   The linear measurement of the distance around a circle. The circumference is calculated by multiplying the diameter of the circle by 3.1416.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).   Established by law to provide for the safe and orderly conduct of flight operations and to prescribe airmen privileges and limitations.

Compression ratio.   The ratio of the volume of a cylinder with the piston at the bottom of its stroke to the volume of the cylinder with the piston at the top of its stroke.

Computer aided design (CAD).   Using a computer in the design of a product.

Computer aided design drafting (CADD).   Using a computer in the design and drafting process.

Computer aided engineering (CAE).   Using a computer in the engineering of a product.

Computer aided manufacturing (CAM).   Using a computer in the manufacturing of a product.

Computer graphics.   Drawing with the use of a computer.

Conduction.   The transfer of heat which requires physical contact between an object that has a large amount of heat energy and one that has a smaller amount of heat energy.

Conductor.   A material that will carry electric current.

Convection.   The process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid (gas or liquid).

Corrosion.   The deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical attack.

Cosine (cos).   A trigonometric function comparing two sides of a right triangle as follows: Cos = adjacent side hypotenuse

Coulomb.   A measure of electrical output. One coulomb is 6.24 ◊ 1018 electrons.

Countersink.   A tool that cuts a cone-shaped depression around a hole in order to allow a rivet or screw to set flush with the surface of the material.

Current.   The flow of electrical charge.

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