Many different metals are required in the repair of aircraft. This is a result of the varying needs with respect to strength, weight, durability, and resistance to deterioration of specific structures of parts. In addition, the particular shape or form of the material plays an important role. In selecting materials for aircraft repair, these factors plus many others are considered in relation to the mechanical and physical properties. Among the common materials used are ferrous metals. The term "ferrous" applies to the group of metals having iron as their principal constituent.


If carbon is added to iron, in percentages ranging up to approximately 1 percent, the product is vastly superior to iron alone and is classified as carbon steel. Carbon steel forms the base of those alloy steels produced by combining carbon steel with other elements known to improve the properties of steel. A base metal (such as iron) to which small quantities of other metals have been added is called an alloy. The addition of other metals changes or improves the chemical or physical properties of the base metal for a particular use.

Nomenclature and Chemical Compositions of Steels

In order to facilitate the discussion of steels, some familiarity with their nomenclature is desirable. A numerical index, sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), is used to identify the chemical compositions of the structural steels. In this system, a four numeral series is used to designate the plain carbon and alloy steels; five numerals are used to designate certain types of alloy steels. The first two digits indicate the type of steel, the second digit also generally (but not always) gives the approximate amount of the major alloying element and the last two (or three) digits are intended to indicate the approximate middle of the carbon range. However, a deviation from the rule of indicating the carbon range is sometimes necessary.

Small quantities of certain elements are present in alloy steels that are not specified as required. These elements are considered as incidental and may be present to the maximum amounts as follows: copper, 0.35 percent; nickel, 0.25 percent; chromium, 0.20 percent; molybdenum, 0.06 percent.

The list of standard steels is altered from time to time to accommodate steels of proven merit and to provide for changes in the metallurgical and engineering requirements of industry.

Metal stock is manufactured in several forms and shapes, including sheets, bars, rods, tubings, extrusions, forgings, and castings. Sheet metal is made in a number of sizes and thicknesses. Specifications designate thicknesses in thousandths of an inch. Bars and rods are supplied in a variety of shapes, such as round, square, rectangular, hexagonal, and octagonal. Tubing can be obtained in round, oval, rectangular, or streamlined shapes. The size of tubing is generally specified by outside diameter and wall thickness.

The sheet metal is usually formed cold in such machines as presses, bending brakes, drawbenches, or rolls. Forgings are shaped or formed by pressing or hammering heated metal in dies. Castings are produced by pouring molten metal into molds. The casting is finished by machining.

Spark testing is a common means of identifying various ferrous metals. In this test the piece of iron or steel is held against a revolving grinding stone and the metal is identified by the sparks thrown off. Each ferrous metal has its own peculiar spark characteristics. The spark streams vary from a few tiny shafts to a shower of sparks several feet in length. (Few nonferrous metals give off sparks when touched to a grinding stone. Therefore, these metals cannot be successfully identified by the spark test.)

Identification by spark testing is often inexact unless performed by an experienced person, or the test pieces differ greatly in their carbon content and alloying constituents.

Wrought iron produces long shafts that are straw colored as they leave the stone and white at the end. Cast iron sparks are red as they leave the stone and turn to a straw color. Low carbon steels give off long, straight shafts having a few white sprigs. As the carbon content of the steel increases, the number of sprigs along each shaft increases and the stream becomes whiter in color. Nickel steel causes the spark stream to contain small white blocks of light within the main burst.

Types, Characteristics, and Uses of Alloyed Steels

Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.10 to 0.30 percent is classed as low carbon steel. The equivalent SAE numbers range from 1010 to 1030. Steels of this grade are used for making such items as safety wire, certain nuts, cable bushings, or threaded rod ends. This steel in sheet form is used for secondary structural parts and clamps, and in tubular form for moderately stressed structural parts.

Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.30 to 0.50 percent is classed as medium carbon steel. This steel is especially adaptable for machining or forging, and where surface hardness is desirable. Certain rod ends and light forgings are made from SAE 1035 steel.

Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.50 to 1.05 percent is classed as high carbon steel. The addition of other elements in varying quantities adds to the hardness of this steel. In the fully heat treated condition it is very hard, will withstand high shear and wear, and will have little deformation. It has limited use in aircraft. SAE 1095 in sheet form is used for making flat springs and in wire form for making coil springs.

The various nickel steels are produced by combining nickel with carbon steel. Steels containing from 3 to 3.75 percent nickel are commonly used. Nickel increases the hardness, tensile strength, and elastic limit of steel without appreciably decreasing the ductility. It also intensifies the hardening effect of heat treatment. SAE 2330 steel is used extensively for aircraft parts, such as bolts, terminals, keys, clevises, and pins.

Chromium steel is high in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistant properties, and is particularly adaptable for heat treated forgings which require greater toughness and strength than may be obtained in plain carbon steel. It can be used for such articles as the balls and rollers of antifriction bearings.

Chrome-nickel or stainless steels are the corrosion resistant metals. The anticorrosive degree of this steel is determined by the surface condition of the metal as well as by the composition, temperature, and concentration of the corrosive agent. The principal alloy of stainless steel is chromium. The corrosion resistant steel most often used in aircraft construction is known as 18-8 steel because of its content of 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel. One of the distinctive features of 18-8 steel is that its strength may be increased by cold working.

Stainless steel may be rolled, drawn, bent, or formed to any shape. Because these steels expand about 50 percent more than mild steel and conduct heat only about 40 percent as rapidly, they are more difficult to weld. Stainless steel can be used for almost any part of an aircraft. Some of its common applications are in the fabrication of exhaust collectors, stacks and manifolds, structural and machined parts, springs, castings, tie rods, and control cables.

The chrome-vanadium steels are made of approximately 18 percent vanadium and about 1 percent chromium. When heat treated, they have strength, toughness, and resistance to wear and fatigue. A special grade of this steel in sheet form can be cold formed into intricate shapes. It can be folded and flattened without signs of breaking or failure. SAE 6150 is used for making springs; and chrome-vanadium with high carbon content, SAE 6195, is used for ball and roller bearings.

Molybdenum in small percentages is used in combination with chromium to form chrome-molybdenum steel, which has various uses in aircraft. Molybdenum is a strong alloying element. It raises the ultimate strength of steel without affecting ductility or workability. Molybdenum steels are tough and wear resistant, and they harden throughout when heat treated. They are especially adaptable for welding and, for this reason, are used principally for welded structural parts and assemblies. This type steel has practically replaced carbon steel in the fabrication of fuselage tubing, engine mounts, landing gears, and other structural parts. For example, a heat treated SAE X4130 tube is approximately four times as strong as an SAE 1025 tube of the same weight and size.

A series of chrome-molybdenum steel most used in aircraft construction is that series containing 0.25 to 0.55 percent carbon, 0.15 to 0.25 percent molybdenum, and 0.50 to 1.10 percent chromium. These steels, when suitably heat treated, are deep hardening, easily machined, readily welded by either gas or electric methods, and are especially adapted to high temperature service.

Inconel is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy closely resembling stainless steel in appearance. Because these two metals look very much alike, a distinguishing test is often necessary. One method of identification is to use a solution of 10 grams of cupric chloride in 100 cubic centimeters of hydrochloric acid. With a medicine dropper, place 1 drop of the solution on a sample of each metal to be tested and allow it to remain for 2 minutes. At the end of this period, slowly add 3 or 4 drops of water to the solution on the metal samples, 1 drop at a time; then wash the samples in clear water and dry them. If the metal is stainless steel, the copper in the cupric chloride solution will be deposited on the metal leaving a copper colored spot. If the sample is inconel, a new looking spot will be present.

The tensile strength of inconel is 100,000 psi annealed, and 125,000 psi, when hard rolled. It is highly resistant to salt water and is able to withstand temperatures as high as 1,600° F. Inconel welds readily and has working qualities quite similar to those of corrosion resistant steels.