1-2-1 Word Meanings
As used in this manual:
a. Shall, or an action verb in the imperative sense, means a procedure is mandatory.
The transferring controller shall forward these data to the receiving controller.
Issue an alternative clearance.
Authorize the aircraft to taxi.
Do not clear an aircraft to land on or takeoff from a closed runway.
b. Should means a procedure is recommended.
c. May or need not means a procedure is optional.
d. Will means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
e. Singular words include the plural.
f. Plural words include the singular.
g. Aircraft means the airframe, crew members, or both.
h. Approved separation means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this manual.
i. Altitude means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
j. Miles means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
k. Course, bearing, azimuth, heading, and wind direction information shall always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
l. Time when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
m. Runway means the runway used by aircraft, and in discussions of separation standards is applicable to helipads with accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (see Pilot/Controller Glossary term - Runway),
n. Flight operations in accordance with the options of due regard or operational obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
1. Separate his aircraft from all other air traffic; and
2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
(a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
(b) Within radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
(c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his aircraft and any other aircraft he may be controlling and other aircraft; or
(d) Operate within Class G airspace.
(e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
1 - A pilot's use of the phrase "Going Tactical" does not indicate "Due Regard." An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
2 - The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government Obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (reference (d)), which stipulates there must be "due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft" when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
o. CFR means Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 through 199.
1-2-2 Course Definition
The following definitions shall be used in the application of the separation criteria in this order.
The term "protected airspace," as used in this paragraph, is the airspace equal to one half the required applicable lateral separation on either side of an aircraft along its projected flight path. If the protected airspace of two aircraft does not overlap, applicable lateral separation is ensured.
a. SAME COURSES are courses whose protected airspaces are coincident,
overlap, or intersect and whose angular difference is less than 45 degrees.
(See Figure 1-2-1)
b. CROSSING COURSES are intersecting courses whose angular difference is 45 through 135 degrees inclusive. (See Figure 1-2-1)
c. OPPOSITE/RECIPROCAL COURSES are courses whose protected airspaces are coincident, overlap, or intersect and whose angular difference is 136 through 180 degrees inclusive. (See Figure 1-2-1)
Statements of fact, or of a prefatory or explanatory nature relating
to directive material, are set forth as notes.