2-1-12 2-1-12 Military Procedures

 Military procedures in the form of additions, modifications, and exceptions to the basic FAA procedure are prescribed herein when a common procedure has not been attained or to fulfill a specific requirement. They shall be applied by:
 a. ATC facilities operated by that military service.
1 - An Air Force facility providing service for an Air Force Base would apply USAF procedures to all traffic regardless of class.
2 - A Navy facility providing service for a Naval Air Station would apply USN procedures to all traffic regardless of class.
 b. ATC facilities, regardless of their parent organization (FAA, USAF, USN, USA), supporting a designated military airport exclusively. This designation determines which military procedures are to be applied.
1 - An FAA facility supports a USAF Base exclusively - USAF procedures are applied to all traffic at that base.
2 - An FAA facility provides approach control service for a Naval Air Station as well as supporting a civil airport - Basic FAA procedures are applied at both locations by the FAA facility.
3 - A USAF facility supports a USAF Base and provides approach control service to a satellite civilian airport - USAF procedures are applied at both locations by the USAF facility.
FAAO 7110.65, Annotations, paragraph 1-2-5.
 c. Other ATC facilities when specified in a letter of agreement.
A USAF unit is using a civil airport supported by an FAA facility - USAF procedures will be applied as specified in a letter of agreement between the unit and the FAA facility to the aircraft of the USAF unit. Basic FAA procedures will be applied to all other aircraft.

2-1-13 Formation Flights

 Control formation flights as a single aircraft. When individual control is requested, issue advisory information which will assist the pilots in attaining separation. When pilot reports indicate separation has been established, issue control instructions as required.
1 - Separation responsibility between aircraft within the formation during transition to individual control rests with the pilots concerned until standard separation has been attained.
2 - Formation join-up and breakaway will be conducted in VFR weather conditions unless prior authorization has been obtained from ATC or individual control has been approved.
FAAO 7110.65, Additional Separation for Formation Flights, paragraph 5-5-7.
P/CG, term Formation Flight.

2-1-14 Coordinate Use of Airspace

 a. Ensure that the necessary coordination has been accomplished before you allow an aircraft under your control to enter another controller's area of jurisdiction.
 b. Before you issue control instructions directly or relay through another source to an aircraft which is within another controller's area of jurisdiction that will change that aircraft's heading, route, speed, or altitude, ensure that coordination has been accomplished with each of the controllers listed below whose area of jurisdiction is affected by those instructions unless otherwise specified by a letter of agreement or a facility directive:

  1. The controller within whose area of jurisdiction the control instructions will be issued.
  2. The controller receiving the transfer of control.
  3. Any intervening controller(s) through whose area of jurisdiction the aircraft will pass.

 c. If you issue control instructions to an aircraft through a source other than another controller (e.g., ARINC, FSS, another pilot) ensure that the necessary coordination has been accomplished with any controllers listed in paragraphs 2-1-14 b1, 2-1-14 b2, and 2-1-14 b3 whose area of jurisdiction is affected by those instructions unless otherwise specified by a letter of agreement or a facility directive.

FAAO 7110.65, Control Transfer, paragraph 2-1-15.
FAAO 7110.65, Adjacent Airspace, paragraph 5-5-9.
FAAO 7110.65, Transferring Controller Handoff, paragraph 5-4-5.
FAAO 7110.65, Receiving Controller Handoff, paragraph 5-4-6.

2-1-15 Control Transfer

 a. Transfer control of an aircraft in accordance with the following conditions:
  1. At a prescribed or coordinated location, time, fix, or altitude, or,
{New-98-3 Revised February 26, 1998}
  2. At the time a radar handoff and frequency change to the receiving controller have been completed and when authorized by a facility directive or letter of agreement which specifies the type and extent of control that is transferred.
FAAO 7110.65, Coordinate Use of Airspace, paragraph 2-1-14.
FAAO 7110.65, Transferring Controller Handoff, paragraph 5-4-5.
FAAO 7110.65, Receiving Controller Handoff, paragraph 5-4-6.
 b. Transfer control of an aircraft only after eliminating any potential conflict with other aircraft for which you have separation responsibility.
 c. Assume control of an aircraft only after it is in your area of jurisdiction unless specifically coordinated or as specified by letter of agreement or a facility directive.

2-1-16 Surface Areas

 a. Coordinate with the appropriate nonapproach control tower on an individual aircraft basis before issuing a clearance which would require flight within a surface area for which the tower has responsibility unless otherwise specified in a letter of agreement.
FAAO 7210.3, Letters of Agreement, paragraph 4-3-1.
CFR Part 91.127, Operating on or in the Vicinity of an Airport.
P/CG, term Surface Area.
 b. Coordinate with the appropriate control tower for transit authorization when you are providing radar traffic advisory service to an aircraft that will enter another facility's airspace.
The pilot is not expected to obtain his own authorization through each area when in contact with a radar facility.
 c. Transfer communications to the appropriate facility, if required, prior to operation within a surface area for which the tower has responsibility.
FAAO 7110.65, Radio Communications Transfer, 2-1-17.
FAAO 7110.65, Surface Area Restrictions, paragraph 3-1-11.
FAAO 7110.65, Application, paragraph 7-6-1.
CFR PART 91.129, Operations in Class D Airspace.

2-1-17 Radio Communications Transfer

 a. Transfer radio communications before an aircraft enters the receiving controller's area of jurisdiction unless otherwise coordinated or specified by a letter of agreement or a facility directive.
 b. Transfer radio communications by specifying the following:
Radio communications transfer procedures may be specified by a letter of agreement or contained in the route description of an MTR as published in the DOD Planning AP/1B (AP/3).
  1. The facility name or location name and terminal function to be contacted. TERMINAL: Omit the location name when transferring communications to another controller within your facility; except when instructing the aircraft to change frequency for final approach guidance include the name of the facility.
  2. Frequency to use except the following may be omitted:
   (a) FSS frequency.
{New-98-8 Revised August 13, 1998. Was "...published on a SID chart..."}
   (b) Departure frequency if previously given or published on a DP chart for the procedure issued.
   (c) TERMINAL:
    (1) Ground or local control frequency if in your opinion the pilot knows which frequency is in use.
    (2) The numbers preceding the decimal point if the ground control frequency is in the 121 MHz bandwidth.
"Contact tower."
"Contact ground."
"Contact ground point seven."
"Contact ground, one two zero point eight."
"Contact Huntington Radio."
"Contact departure."
"Contact Los Angeles Center, one two three point four."
  3. Time, fix, altitude, or specifically when to contact a facility. You may omit this when compliance is expected upon receipt.
AIM, paragraph 5-3-1, ARTCC COMMUNICATIONS, informs pilots that they are expected to maintain a listening watch on the transferring controller's frequency until the time, fix, or altitude specified.
 CONTACT (facility name or location name and terminal function), (frequency).
If required,
 AT (time, fix, or altitude).
 c. In situations where an operational advantage will be gained, and following coordination with the receiving controller, you may instruct aircraft on the ground to monitor the receiving controller's frequency.
"Monitor tower."
"Monitor ground."
"Monitor ground point seven."
"Monitor ground, one two zero point eight."
 d. In situations where a sector has multiple frequencies or when sectors are combined using multiple frequencies and the aircraft will remain under your jurisdiction, transfer radio communication by specifying the following:
(Identification) CHANGE TO MY FREQUENCY (state frequency).
"United Two Twenty-two change to my frequency one two three point four."
AIM, Contact Procedures, paragraph 4-2-3.
 e. Avoid issuing a frequency change to helicopters known to be single piloted during air taxiing, hovering, or low level flight. Whenever possible, relay necessary control instructions until the pilot is able to change frequency.
Most light helicopters are flown by one pilot and require the constant use of both hands and feet to maintain control. Although flight control friction devices assist the pilot, changing frequency near the ground could result in inadvertent ground contact and consequent loss of control. Pilots are expected to advise ATC of their single pilot status if unable to comply with a frequency change.
AIM, Communications, paragraph 4-3-14.
 f. In situations where the controller does not want the pilot to change frequency but the pilot is expecting or may want a frequency change, use the following phraseology.
FAAO 7110.65, Clearance Information, paragraph 4-7-1.
FAAO 7110.65, Communication Transfer, paragraph 5-12-8.

2-1-18 Operational Requests

 Respond to a request from another controller, a pilot or vehicle operator by one of the following verbal means:
 a. Restate the request in complete or abbreviated terms followed by the word "APPROVED." The phraseology "APPROVED AS REQUESTED" may be substituted in lieu of a lengthy readback.
 (Requested operation) APPROVED.
 b. State restrictions followed by the word "APPROVED."
(Restriction and/or additional instructions, requested operation) APPROVED.
 c. State the word "UNABLE" and, time permitting, a reason.
 UNABLE (requested operation)
and when necessary,
 (reason and/or additional instructions.)
 d. State the words "STAND BY."
"Stand by" is not an approval or denial. The controller acknowledges the request and will respond at a later time.
FAAO 7110.65, Traffic Advisories, paragraph 2-1-21.
FAAO 7110.65, Route or Altitude Amendments, paragraph 4-2-5.
FAAO 7110.65, Methods, paragraph 7-9-3.

2-1-19 Wake Turbulence

{New-98-3 Revised February 26, 1998}
 a. Apply wake turbulence procedures to aircraft operating behind heavy jets/B757's and, where indicated, to small aircraft behind large aircraft.
{New-98-3 Revised February 26, 1998}
  Paragraph 5-5-3, Minima, specifies increased radar separation for small type aircraft landing behind large, heavy,
  or B757 aircraft because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.
 b. The separation minima shall continue to touchdown for all IFR aircraft not making a visual approach or maintaining visual separation.
FAAO 7110.65, Approach Separation Responsibility, paragraph 5-9-5.
{New-98-3 Added February 26, 1998}
 c. When parallel runways are less than 2,500 feet apart, do not permit a heavy jet/B757 aircraft to overtake another aircraft. Do not permit a large aircraft to overtake a small aircraft.

2-1-20 Wake Turbulence Cautionary Advisories

 a. Issue wake turbulence cautionary advisories and the position, altitude if known, and direction of flight of the heavy jet or B-757 to:
AC 90-23, Pilot Responsibility, paragraph 12.
{New-98-3 Revised February 26, 1998}
  1. TERMINAL: VFR aircraft not being radar vectored but are behind heavy jets or B-757's.
  2. IFR aircraft that accept a visual approach or visual separation.
{New-98-3 Revised February 26, 1998}
  FAAO 7110.65, Visual Approach, paragraph 7-4-1.
  3. TERMINAL: VFR arriving aircraft that have previously been radar vectored and the vectoring has been discontinued.
 b. Issue cautionary information to any aircraft if in your opinion wake turbulence may have an adverse effect on it. When traffic is known to be a heavy aircraft, include the word heavy in the description.
Wake turbulence may be encountered by aircraft in flight as well as when operating on the airport movement area. Because wake turbulence is unpredictable, the controller is not responsible for anticipating its existence or effect. Although not mandatory during ground operations, controllers may use the words jet blast, propwash, or rotorwash, in lieu of wake turbulence, when issuing a caution advisory.
AC 90-23 Aircraft Wake Turbulence.
P/CG TERM, Aircraft Classes.
P/CG TERM, Wake Turbulence.
CAUTION WAKE TURBULENCE (traffic information).
FAAO 7110.65, Visual Separation, paragraph 7-2-1.