3-7-1 Ground Traffic Movement
Issue by radio or directional light signals specific instructions which approve or disapprove the movement of aircraft, vehicles, equipment, or personnel on the movement area.
a. Do not issue CONDITIONAL instructions that are dependent upon the movement of an arrival aircraft on or approaching the runway or a departure aircraft established on a takeoff roll. Do not say, "Taxi into position and hold behind landing traffic," or "Taxi/proceed across Runway Three Six behind departing/landing Jetstar." The above requirements do not preclude issuing instructions to follow an aircraft observed to be operating on the movement area in accordance with an ATC clearance/instruction and in such a manner that the instructions to follow are not ambiguous.
b. Do not use the word "cleared" in conjunction with authorization for aircraft to taxi or equipment/vehicle/personnel operations. Use the prefix "taxi," "proceed," or "hold," as appropriate, for aircraft instructions and "proceed" or "hold" for equipment/vehicles/personnel.
c. Intersection departures may be initiated by a controller or a controller may authorize an intersection departure if a pilot requests. Issue the measured distance from the intersection to the runway end rounded "down" to the nearest 50 feet to any pilot who requests and to all military aircraft, unless use of the intersection is covered in appropriate directives.
Exceptions are authorized where specific military aircraft routinely make intersection takeoffs and procedures are defined in appropriate directives. The authority exercising operational control of such aircraft ensures that all pilots are thoroughly familiar with these procedures, including the usable runway length from the applicable intersection.
d. State the runway intersection when authorizing an aircraft to taxi into position to hold or when clearing an aircraft for takeoff from an intersection.
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) further instructions as needed.
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator), TAXI INTO POSITION AND HOLD.
if requested or required,
RUNWAY (number) AT (taxiway designator) INTERSECTION DEPARTURE, (remaining length) FEET AVAILABLE.
3-7-2 Taxi and Ground Movement Operations
Issue, as required or requested, the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow on the movement area in concise and easy to understand terms. When a taxi clearance to a runway is issued to an aircraft, confirm the aircraft has the correct runway assignment.
1 - A pilot's readback of taxi instructions with the runway assignment can be considered confirmation of runway assignment.
2 - Movement of aircraft or vehicles on nonmovement areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator, or the airport management.
a. When authorizing a vehicle to proceed on the movement area or an aircraft to taxi to any point other than an assigned takeoff runway, absence of holding instructions authorizes an aircraft/vehicle to cross all taxiways and runways that intersect the taxi route. If it is the intent to hold the aircraft/vehicle short of any given point along the taxi route, issue the route if necessary, then state the holding instructions.
Movement of aircraft or vehicles on nonmovement areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator, or the airport management.
HOLD FOR (reason)
ON (runway number or taxiways, etc.),
ACROSS RUNWAY (number).
VIA (route), HOLD SHORT OF (location)
FOLLOW (traffic) (restrictions as necessary)
"Cross Runway Two Eight Left."
"Taxi / continue taxiing / proceed to the hangar."
"Taxi / continue taxiing / proceed straight ahead then via ramp to the hangar."
"Taxi / continue taxiing / proceed on Taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven."
b. When authorizing an aircraft to taxi to an assigned takeoff runway and hold short instructions are not issued, specify the runway preceded by "taxi to," and issue taxi instructions if necessary. This authorizes the aircraft to "cross" all runways/taxiways which the taxi route intersects except the assigned takeoff runway. This does not authorize the aircraft to "enter" or "cross" the assigned takeoff runway at any point.
TAXI TO RUNWAY (number) VIA...
"Taxi to Runway One Two."
"Taxi to Runway Three Six via Taxiway Echo."
c. Specify the runway for departure, any necessary taxi instructions, and hold short restrictions when an aircraft will be required to hold short of a runway along the taxi route.
TAXI/PROCEED VIA (route if necessary),
SHORT OF (runway number),
SHORT OF (location),
ON (taxi strip, runup pad, etc.),
and if necessary,
TRAFFIC (traffic information),
"Runway 36 Left, taxi via Taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway 27 Right."
"Runway 36 Left, hold short of Runway 27 Right."
d. Request a readback of runway hold short instructions when they are not received from the pilot/vehicle operator.
READ BACK HOLD INSTRUCTIONS.
EXAMPLE 1 -
"American Four Ninety Two, Runway 36 Left, taxi via Taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway 27 Right.
"American Four Ninety Two, Roger."
"American Four Ninety Two, Read Back Hold Instructions."
EXAMPLE 2 -
"Cleveland Tower, American Sixty Three is ready for departure."
"American Sixty Three hold short of Runway 23 Left, traffic one mile final."
"American Sixty Three Roger."
"American Sixty Three Read Back Hold Instructions."
EXAMPLE 3 -
"OPS Three proceed via Taxiway Charlie hold short of Runway 27."
"OPS Three roger."
"OPS Three, Read Back Hold Instructions."
Readback hold instructions phraseology may be initiated for any point on a movement area when the controller believes the readback is necessary.
e. Issue progressive taxi/ground movement instructions when:
1. Pilot/operator requests.
2. The specialist deems it necessary due to traffic or field conditions, e.g., construction or closed taxiways.
3. As necessary during reduced visibility, especially when the taxi route is not visible from the tower.
f. Progressive ground movement instructions include step by step routing directions.
FAAO 7110.65, Runway Proximity, paragraph 3-7-4.
FAAO 7110.65, Taxi and Ground Movement Operation, paragraph 3-11-1.
g. Instructions to expedite a taxiing aircraft or a moving vehicle.
Taxi without delay (traffic if necessary).
Exit/Proceed/Cross (runway/taxiway) without delay.
3-7-3 Ground Operations
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
Avoid clearances which require:
a. Heavy jet aircraft to use greater than normal taxiing power.
b. Small aircraft or helicopters to taxi in close proximity to taxiing or hover taxi helicopters.
AC 90-23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence, paragraphs 10 and 11.
3-7-4 Runway Proximity
Hold a taxiing aircraft or vehicle clear of the runway as follows:
a. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold short of a specific runway.
b. Instruct aircraft or vehicle to hold at a specified point.
c. Issue traffic information as necessary.
HOLD SHORT OF/AT (runway number or specific point), (traffic or other information).
Establishing hold lines/signs is the responsibility of the airport manager. The standards for surface measurements, markings, and signs are contained in Advisory Circulars 150/5300-13, 150/5340-1 and 150/5340-18. The operator is responsible for properly positioning the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The requirements in Visually Scanning Runways, paragraph 3-1-12, remain valid as appropriate.
FAAO 7110.65, Taxi and Ground Movement Operation, paragraph 3-7-2.
FAAO 7110.65, Altitude Restricted Low Approach, paragraph 3-10-10.
FAAO 7110.65, Vehicles/Equipment/Personnel on Runways, paragraph 3-1-5.
3-7-5 Precision Approach Critical Area
a. ILS critical area dimensions are described in FAAO 6750.16, Siting Criteria for Instrument Landing Systems. Aircraft and vehicle access to the ILS/MLS critical area must be controlled to ensure the integrity of ILS/MLS course signals whenever conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet and/or visibility 2 miles. Do not authorize vehicles/aircraft to operate in or over the critical area, except as specified in subparagraph a1, whenever an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS outer marker (OM) or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reported the runway in sight or is circling to land on another runway.
HOLD SHORT OF (Runway) ILS/MLS CRITICAL AREA.
1. LOCALIZER CRITICAL AREA -
(a) Do not authorize vehicle or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the instrument landing system (ILS) outer marker (OM) or the fix used in lieu of the OM when conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet and/or visibility 2 miles except:
(1) A preceding arriving aircraft on the same or another runway that passes over or through the area while landing or exiting the runway.
(2) A preceding departing aircraft or missed approach on the same or another runway that passes through or over the area.
(b) In addition to subparagraph a.1.(a), do not authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the middle marker when conditions are less than reported ceiling 200 feet and/or RVR 2,000 feet.
2. GLIDESLOPE CRITICAL AREA - Do not authorize vehicles or aircraft operations in or over the area when an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS OM or the fix used in lieu of the OM unless the arriving aircraft has reported the runway in sight or is circling to land on another runway when conditions are less than reported ceiling 800 feet and/or visibility less than 2 miles.
b. Air carriers commonly conduct "coupled" or "autoland" operations to satisfy maintenance, training, or reliability program requirements. Promptly issue an advisory if the critical area will not be protected when an arriving aircraft advises that a "coupled," "CAT III," "autoland," or similar type approach will be conducted and the weather is a reported ceiling of 800 feet or more, and the visibility is 2 miles or more.
ILS/MLS CRITICAL AREA NOT PROTECTED.
c. The Department of Defense (DOD) is authorized to define criteria for protection of precision approach critical areas at military controlled airports. This protection is provided to all aircraft operating at that military controlled airport. Waiver authority for DOD precision approach critical area criteria rests with the appropriate military authority.
Signs and markings are installed by the airport operator to define the ILS/MLS critical area. No point along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is permitted past the hold line for holding purposes. The operator is responsible to properly position the aircraft, vehicle, or equipment at the appropriate hold line/sign or designated point. The requirements in Visually Scanning Runways, paragraph 3-1-12, remain valid as appropriate.
AC 150/5340-1, Airport Markings.