system, required in all type-certificated hot air
balloons, that gives a constant reading of the
inside air temperature at the top of the envelope.
May be direct reading, or remote, using a
thermocouple or thermistor connected to a gauge
in the basket or reading signals sent by a
A small plastic
laminate with temperature-sensitive paint dots that
turn from white or silver to black, to record
permanently the maximum temperature reached.
The strength of a material that
resists the stresses of trying to stretch or lengthen
Terminal Velocity Descent
A term used by
balloonists for the speed obtained when the
balloon is allowed to fall until it apparently stops
accelerating, at which point the envelope acts as
a parachute and its vertical speed is no longer
affected by its lifting gas, but only by its shape
(which is caused by design), load, and other
Operation of a manned balloon
secured to the ground by a series of lines.
A large triangular-shaped wind
indicator mounted on a pivot so it can swing free
and point into the wind. Usually found at airports.
A column of rising air associated with
adjacent areas of differing temperature. Thermal
activity caused by the sun's heating usually starts
2 to 3 hours after sunrise.
See Blast Valve.
Time in Service
"With respect to maintenance
time records, means the time from the moment
an aircraft leaves the surface of the earth until it
touches it at the next point of landing." (14 CFR
An operation by an
aircraft that lands and takes off without stopping.
The traffic flow that is
prescribed for aircraft landing at or taking off
from an airport.
A vent on the side of a hot air
balloon envelope which, when opened, allows
escaping air to exit in a manner causing the
balloon to rotate on its axis.
Official recognition that the
design and operating limitations of an aircraft,
engine, or propeller meet the airworthiness
standards prescribed by the Code of Federal
Regulations for that particular category or type
of aircraft, engine, or propeller.
Lift that occurs without
specific action by the pilot. Often referred to as