Attitude Flying Attitude Flying
Airplane control is composed of three components: (1) pitch control, (2) bank control, and (3) power control (Fig. 6-1). Pitch control is the control of the airplane about its lateral axis by applying elevator pressure to raise or lower the nose, usually in relation to the horizon. Bank control is the control of the airplane about its longitudinal axis by use of the ailerons to attain the desired angle of bank in relation to the horizon. Power control is the control of power or thrust by use of the throttle to establish or maintain desired airspeeds in coordination with the attitude changes.

The attitude indicator (artificial horizon), heading indicator, altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and airspeed indicator, are the instruments used as references for control of the airplane. The attitude 

indicator shows directly both the pitch and bank attitude of  the airplane; the heading indicator shows directly the airplane's direction of flight, and indirectly, the bank attitude; the altimeter indicates the airplane's altitude and, indirectly, the need for a pitch change; the vertical speed indicator shows the rate of climb or descent; and the airspeed indicator shows the results of power and/or pitch changes by the airplane's speed. The outside visual references used in controlling the airplane include the airplane's nose and wingtips to show both the airplane's pitch attitude and flight direction; the wing and frame of the windshield to show the angle of bank.

   The objectives in these basic maneuvers are to learn the proper use of the controls for maneuvering the airplane, to attain the proper attitude in relation to the horizon by use of inside and outside references, and to emphasize the importance of dividing attention and constantly checking all reference points.