Chapter4 Chapter 4 - The Effect and Use of Controls
This chapter briefly discusses the devices with which the pilot operates the airplane in the air and on the ground, and how those devices are to be used effectively.

   To maneuver an airplane, the pilot must control its movement around its lateral, longitudinal, and vertical axes. This is accomplished by the use of the flight controls - elevators, ailerons, and rudder - which can be deflected from their neutral position into the flow of air as the airplane moves forward through the air. During flight, the flight controls have a natural "live pressure" due to the force of the airflow around them.

   With this in mind, the pilot should think not of moving the flight controls, but of exerting force on them against this live pressure or resistance.