Torque and P Factor Torque and P Factor

   To the pilot, "torque" (the left turning tendency of the airplane) is made up of four elements which cause or produce a twisting or rotating motion around at least one of the airplane's three axes. These four elements are:

      1. Torque Reaction from Engine and Propeller
      2. Corkscrewing Effect of the Slipstream
      3. Gyroscopic Action of the Propeller
      4. Asymmetric Loading of the Propeller (P Factor)