|Chapter 2. The Learning Process
Evaluation Versus Critique
In the initial stages of skill acquisition, practical suggestions are more valuable to the student than a grade. Early evaluation is usually teacher oriented. It provides a check on teaching effectiveness, can be used to predict eventual student learning proficiency, and can help the teacher locate special problem areas. The observations on which the evaluations are based also can identify the studentís strengths and weaknesses, a prerequisite for making constructive criticism. For additional information, refer to Chapter 5, Assessment.
As a student practices a skill, it is important he or she perform the skill correctly and that the skill being practiced is one that needs to be developed to maturity. An instructor ensures a skill is practiced correctly by monitoring the practice and providing feedback about the skill development. The student profits by having someone watch the performance and provide constructive criticism to help eliminate errors. Providing compliments on aspects of the skill that were performed correctly help keep the evaluation positive. Allowing the student to critique his or her performance enhances student-centered training.
Instructors should note students can develop deviations from the intended method of performance at any stage of skill acquisition.
Overlearning of Knowledge
Overlearning is the continued study of a skill after initial proficiency has been achieved. Practice proceeds beyond the point at which the act can be performed with the required degree of excellence. The phenomenon of overlearning sometimes occurs when knowledge used frequently begins to take on the properties of a skill. For example, a studentís everyday knowledge about weight-and-balance concepts tends to center on the routine use of familiar charts found in the aircraft. Eventually, the studentís performance is characterized less by an understanding of weight-and-balance concepts, and more by an automatic process in which rows and columns of familiar charts give desired numbers.
In some cases, the overlearning of knowledge has the advantage of making application of knowledge more streamlined and efficient. In other cases, the development of automated routines can lead to problems. For example, a verbal checklist procedure becomes so automatic that a streamlined recitation of checklist items becomes decoupled from the thoughts and actions the checklist items are intended to trigger. In this case, the pilot or mechanic may not stop to consider each item.
The development of automated skills can impede further learning or lead to forgetting general knowledge. In one study, student pilots and flight instructors were asked to solve weight-and-balance problems using charts taken from two different aircraft: (1) a small single-engine airplane they flew on a daily basis and (2) a different small single-engine airplane in which they had no experience. Test scores were surprisingly low when the charts for the unfamiliar airplane were used, and this was as true for instructors as it was for students. The results suggest pilots had focused on developing streamlined, automatic procedures tuned to the details of the familiar aircraft charts while their ability to use their understanding of overall weight-and-balance concepts seemed to have diminished.
Instructors must remain aware of skills students develop as a result of overlearning and help make sure that their actions continue to be accompanied by a use of their underlying knowledge. As a student progresses, the key difference between knowledge and skill becomes apparent. Memorized facts about a topic that once supported the beginnerís awkward performance of the skill tend to develop into deeper understanding. Skill acquisition involves learning many individual steps that eventually meld into a seemingly continuous automated process, at which point the student has entered the procedural knowledge realm, and may no longer be consciously aware of the individual steps.
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