A: Speed less than 91 knots; weight less than 30,001 pounds.
B: Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots; weight 30,001 pounds or more but less than 60,001 pounds.
C: Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots; weight 60,001 pounds or more but less than 150,001 pounds.
D: Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots; weight 150,001 pounds or more.
E: Speed 166 knots or more; any weight.


  Category A
   1.3 Vs0 less than 91 knots weight less than 30,001 pounds. This Category includes civil single engine aircraft, light twins, and some of the heavier twins. Typical heavier aircraft in this Category are:

                     AIRCRAFT      SPEED IN KNOTS      MAX. LANDING
       Make         Type/Model         1.3 Vs0         Weight (lbs.)
   Aero Commander     680 F               87               8,000
   Cessna             310 C               83               4,830
   Beechcraft         Queenair 65         90               7,350
   Douglas            DC-3                78              26,500

  Category B
   1.3 Vs0 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots; weight 30,001 pounds or more but less than 60,001 pounds. This group includes most of the heavier twin-engine aircraft, some of which are listed as follows:

                     AIRCRAFT      SPEED IN KNOTS      MAX. LANDING
       Make         Type/Model         1.3 Vs0         Weight (lbs.)
   Grand Commander                         92               8,500
   Beechcraft          80                  94               8,800
   Beechcraft        65-90 Turboprop      100               8,835
   Beechcraft        Super 18              97               9,500
   Cessna            411 C                 95               6,500
   Convair           340                  107              46,500
   Convair           580                  110              50,670
   Fairchild         F-27                  91              36,000

  Category C
   1.3 Vs0 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots; weight 60,001 pounds or more but less than 150,001 pounds. This Category includes the four-engine propeller aircraft, and two and three engine turbojets, some of which are listed as follows:

                     AIRCRAFT      SPEED IN KNOTS      MAX. LANDING
       Make         Type/Model         1.3 Vs0         Weight (lbs.)
   Boeing            727-100             122             135,000
   Caravelle             6               139             105,000
   Douglas            DC-4                97              63,500
   Douglas            DC-6               110              88,200
   Douglas            DC-7               115              97,000
   Douglas            DC-9-15            135              81,700
   Douglas            DC-9-31            126              95,300
   Jet Commander      1121               124              16,000
   Lear Jet             24               125              11,800
   Lear Jet             23               127              11,800
   Lockheed          649, 749             93              89,500
   Lockheed           1049               112             110,000
   Lockheed          Jetstar             128              30,000
   Lockheed            188               124              95,600

  Category D
   1.3 Vs0 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots; weight 150,001 pounds or more. This Category includes the large four-engine turbojet aircraft, some of which are listed as follows:

                     AIRCRAFT      SPEED IN KNOTS      MAX. LANDING
    Make            Type/Model         1.3 Vs0         Weight (lbs.)
   Boeing            707/123B            133             190,000
   Boeing            720/051B            131             175,000
   Boeing            300 B               126             207,000
   Convair           880M                140             155,000
   Convair           990A                160             202,000
   Douglas           DC-8-21             136             155,000
   Douglas           DC-8-61             144             240,000

 f. Legend Pages contain the Plain View Symbols, Profile information, Aerodrome Sketch information, and General Information and Abbreviations. The following figures 3 and 4 are Legend Pages to the Coast and Geodetic Survey instrument approach procedures charts.

Figure 3.

Figure 4.

 g. Revised Format For Government-Produced Instrument Approach Procedure Charts.
 Complete revision to instrument approach chart format has been made. Each chart consists of five sections: margin identification, plan view, profile view, landing minimum section (and notes), and aerodrome sketch. See figures 5 and 6 below.

Figure 5.

Figure 6.

Figure 7.

Figure 8.

  (1) Margin Identification.
   (a) The procedure identification is derived from the type facility providing final approach course guidance and (1) runway number when the approach course is within 30° of the runway centerline, i.e., ILS Rwy 14, or (2) sequential number for the airport when the approach course is more than 30° from runway centerline, i.e., VOR-1, VOR-2, etc.
   (b) Nondirectional Beacon (NDB), Localizer (LOC) and Localizer Type Directional Aid (LDA) are used to identify more accurately the type facility providing final approach course guidance.
    1 "NDB" procedure number replaces ADF type procedure.
    2 "LOC" procedure number indicates that a localizer provides course guidance and a glide slope (ground facility) has not been installed. (Includes ILS back course procedures.)
    3 "LDA" procedure number is the same as localizer but is not aligned with the runway centerline. The approach chart should be examined to determine the direction and degrees of alignment away from runway centerline.
   (c) VOR/DME procedure number means that both operative VOR and DME receivers and ground equipment in normal operation are required to use the procedure. As stated previously, in the VOR/DME procedure, when either the VOR or DME is inoperative, the procedure is not authorized.
   (d) When DME arcs and DME fixes are authorized in a procedure and the procedure number does not include the three letter "DME" type of facility in the margin identification, the procedure may be used without utilizing the DME equipment.
   (e) VORTAC type procedure is a VOR/DME procedure that is authorized for an aircraft equipped with either VOR/DME or TACAN receiver.

Figure 9.

Figure 10.

  (2) Plan View (Figures 7, 9, and 10). This is a bird's eye view of the entire procedure. Information pertaining to the initial approach segment, including procedure turn, minimum safe altitude for each sector, courses prescribed for the final approach segment and obstructions, is portrayed in this section. Navigation and communication frequencies are also listed on the plan view.
   (a) Format. Normally, all information within the plan view is shown to scale. Data shown within the 10 NM distance circle is always shown to scale. (See figure 7.) The dashed circles, called concentric rings, are used when all information necessary to the procedure will not fit to scale within the limits of the plan view area. These circles then serve as a means to systematically arrange this information in their relative position outside and beyond the 10 NM distance circle. These concentric rings are labeled Enroute Facilities and Feeder Facilities.
   (b) Enroute Facilities Ring. (See figure 7.) Radio aids to navigation, fixes and intersections that are part of the Enroute Low Altitude Airway structure and used in the approach procedure are shown in their relative position on this Enroute Facilities Ring.
   (c) Feeder Facilities Ring. (See figure 7.) Radio aids to navigation, fixes and intersections used by the air traffic controller to direct aircraft to intervening facilities/fixes between the enroute structure and the initial approach fix are shown in their relative position on this Feeder Facilities Ring.
   (d) The Availability of Radar (see figure 10) is indicated below the communications information by the appropriate and applicable letters "ASR", "PAR", "ASR/PAR" or "RADAR VECTORING." These terms are applied as follows:

    1 ASR  - means Airport Surveillance Radar instrument approach procedures are available at the airport, and also that Radar Vectoring is available for the procedure.
    2 PAR  - means Precision Approach Radar instrument approach procedures are available.
    3 Radar Vectoring - means Radar Vectoring is available but radar instrument approach procedures are not available.
   (e) The Term "Initial Approach" is explained in section 97.3(c)(1) of Part 97 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. It is further explained in the FAA Handbook "U.S. Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPs)", page 15 section 3, Initial Approach.

    1 In the initial approach, the aircraft has departed the enroute phase of flight, and is maneuvering to enter an intermediate or final segment of the instrument approach.
    2 An initial approach may be made along prescribed routes within the terminal area which may be along an arc, radial, course, heading, radar vector, or a combination thereof. Procedure turns and high altitude teardrop penetrations are initial approach segments.
    3 Initial approach information is portrayed in the plan view of the instrument approach charts by course lines, with an arrow indicating the direction. Minimum altitude and distance between fixes is also shown with the magnetic course.
    4 When the term "NoPT" appears, an intermediate approach is provided. These altitudes shown with the term "NoPT" cannot be used as an initial approach altitude for the purpose of determining alternate airports requirements under FAR 91.23(c) {§ 91.23 recodified to § 91.167} and 91.83(b) {§ 91.83 recodified to § 91.153}.
   (f) When an approach course is published on an ILS procedure that does not require a procedure turn (NoPT), the following applies.

    1 In the case of a dog-leg track and no fix is depicted at the point of interception on the localizer course, the total distance is shown from the facility or fix to the LOM, or to an NDB associated with the ILS.
    2 The minimum altitude applies until the glide slope is intercepted, at which point the aircraft descends on the glide slope.
    3 When the glide slope is not utilized, this minimum altitude is maintained to the LOM (or to the NDB if appropriate).
    4 In isolated instances, when proceeding NoPT to the LOM and the glide slope cannot be utilized, a procedure turn will be required to descend for a straight-in approach and landing. In these cases, the requirement for a procedure turn will be annotated on the Plan View of the procedure chart.

   (g) Procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final approach course. It is a required maneuver except when the symbol NoPT is shown, when radar vectoring is provided, when a one minute holding pattern is published in lieu of a procedure turn, or when the procedure turn is not authorized. The altitude prescribed for the procedure turn is a MINIMUM altitude until the aircraft is established on the inbound course. The maneuver must be completed within the distance specified in the profile view.

    1 A barb indicates the direction or side of the outbound course on which the procedure turn is made. Headings are provided for course reversal using the 45° type procedure turn. However, the point at which the turn may be commenced and the type and rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot. Some of the options are the 45° procedure turn, the racetrack pattern, the tear-drop procedure turn, or the 80° - 260° course reversal. These maneuvers are diagrammed in the FAA Instrument Flying Handbook (AC 61-27A), and the steps numbered under the figures are intended for student practice under no-wind conditions.
    2 Limitations on procedure turns.
     a In the case of a radar initial approach to a final approach fix or position, or a timed approach from a holding fix, or where the procedure specifies "NoPT", no pilot may make a procedure turn unless, when he receives his final approach clearance, he also advises ATC and a clearance is received.
     b When a tear-drop procedure turn is depicted and a course reversal is required, this type turn must be executed.
     c When a one minute holding pattern replaces the procedure turn, the standard entry and the holding pattern must be followed except when RADAR VECTORING is provided or when NoPT is shown on the approach course. Diagrams of the holding pattern and entries into the pattern also are illustrated in the Handbook 61-27A. As in the procedure turn, the descent from the minimum holding pattern altitude to the final approach fix altitude (when lower) may not commence until the aircraft is established on the inbound course.
     d The absence of the procedure turn barb in the Plan View indicates that a procedure turn is not authorized for that procedure.
    3 A Procedure Turn is not required when the symbol NoPT appears on an approach course shown on the Plan View. If a procedure turn is desired, descent below the procedure turn altitude should not be made since some NoPT altitudes may be lower than the procedure turn altitude.

Figure 11.

Figure 12.

  (3) Profile views (Figures 11 and 12) show a side view of the procedures. These views include the minimum altitude and maximum distance for the procedure turn, altitudes over prescribed fixes, distances between fixes and the missed approach procedure.
   (a) Precision approach glide slope intercept altitude. This is a minimum altitude for glide slope interception after completion of procedure turn. It applies to precision approaches and, except where otherwise prescribed, it also applies as a minimum altitude for crossing the final approach fix in case the glide slope is inoperative or not used.
   (b) Stepdown fixes in non-precision procedures. A stepdown fix may be provided on the final, i.e., between the final approach fix and the airport for the purpose of authorizing a lower MDA after passing an obstruction. This stepdown fix may be made by an NDB bearing, fan marker, radar fix, radial from another VOR, or by a DME when provided for as shown in figure 12.
   (c) Normally, there is only one stepdown fix between the final approach fix (FAF) and the missed approach point (MAP). If the stepdown fix cannot be identified for any reason, the altitude at the stepdown fix becomes the MDA for a straight-in landing. However, when circling under this condition, you must refer to the Minimums Section of the procedure for the applicable circling minimum. See figure 14 for example.
   (d) Missed approach point (MAP). It should be specifically noted that the missed approach points are different for the complete ILS (with glide slope) and for the localizer only approach. The MAP for the ILS is at the decision height (DH) while the "localizer only" MAP is usually over the (straight-in) runway threshold. In some non-precision procedures, the MAP may be prior to reaching the runway threshold in order to clear obstructions in the missed approach climb-out area. In non-precision procedures, the pilot determines when he is at the missed approach point (MAP) by timing from the final approach fix (FAF). The FAF has been clearly identified by use of the maltese cross symbol in the profile section. The distance from FAF to MAP and time and speed table, for easy calculation, are found below the aerodrome sketches (figures 15 and 16). This does not apply to VOR/DME procedures, or when the facility is on the airport and the facility is the MAP.

Figure 13.

Figure 14.

  (4) Minimum section.
   (a) The same minimums apply to both day and night operations unless different minimums are specified at the bottom of the minimum box in the space provided for symbols or notes.
   (b) The minimums for straight-in and circling appear directly under each aircraft category. When there is no division line between minimums for each category on the straight-in or circling lines, the minimums apply to two or more categories under the A, B, C, or D.

   (For figure 13, the S-ILS 14 minimums apply to all four categories. The S-localizer 14 minimums are the same for Categories A, B, and C, and different for Category D. The circling minimums are the same for A and B and individually different for C and D.)
   (c) The Nixa, Missouri, Grenzall West Airport, VOR Rwy 12R procedure (figures 12 and 14) authorizes minimums for aircraft with one VOR receiver. Lower minimums are authorized if the aircraft also has DME or dual VOR receivers and St. Barner Intersection is identified. (See figure 14 for dual minimums.)
  (5) Aerodrome data.

Figure 15.

Figure 16.

  (6) General information.
   (a) During pre-flight planning prior to departure on an IFR flight plan, reference should be made to instrument approach charts to determine:
    1 Take-off minimums.
    2 Whether an IFR departure procedure for obstruction avoidance has been established.
    Instrument approach charts in the old format have take-off minimums and departure procedures published on the chart. Procedures published under the revised format do not contain this information. Take-off minimums are standard (see paragraph 3.b.) unless the symbol  is shown under the minimums box indicating that the separate listing should be consulted. Below is an example of this listing.

Figure 17.

FAR 91.116(c) {§ 91.116 recodified to § 91.175} prescribes take-off rules for FAR 121, 129, and 135 operators and establishes standard take-off visibility minimums as follows:
(1) Aircraft having two engines or less - one statue mile.
(2) Aircraft having more than two engines - one-half statute mile.
Aerodromes within this geographical area with IFR take-off minimums other than standard are listed below alphabetically be aerodrome name. Departure procedures and/or ceiling and visibility minimums are established to assist pilots conducting IFR flight in avoiding obstructions during climb to the minimum enroute altitude.
Take-off minimums and departure procedures apply to all runways unless otherwise specified.

 Carter, Nebraska

   (b) When use of an alternate airport is required in filing an IFR flight plan (FAR 91.83 {§ 91.83 recodified to § 91.153}), reference should be made to the instrument approach procedure to be used for the alternate selected to determine alternate airport minimums. Procedures charted in the old format have alternate minimums shown on the chart. Procedures charted in the new format do not contain this information. Alternate minimums are standard (see paragraph 3.c.) unless the symbol  is shown under the minimums box indicating that alternate minimums are not standard and that the separate listing should be consulted. If the airport is not authorized for use as an alternate, the letters "NA" will follow the symbol under the minimum box. Below is an example of the Alternate Minimums listing.

   Note: If the pilot elects to proceed to the selected alternate airport, the alternate ceiling and visibility minimums are disregarded, and the published landing minimum is applicable for the new destination utilizing facilities as appropriate to the procedure. In other words, the alternate airport becomes a new destination, and the pilot uses the landing minimum appropriate to the type of procedure selected.

Figure 18.

(Not applicable to USAF/USN)
Standard alternate minimums for nonprecision approaches are 800-2 (NDB, VOR, LOC, TACAN, LDA, VORTAC, VOR/DME or ASR); for precision approaches 600-2 (ILS or PAR). Aerodromes within this geographical area that require alternate minimums other than standard or alternate minimum with restrictions, are listed below. U.S. Army pilots refer to Army Reg. 95-2 for additional application. Civil pilots see FAR 91.83 {§ 91.83 recodified to § 91.153}. USAF/USN pilots refer to appropriate regulations.
 Nixa, Missouri
  Categories A, B and C, 1100-2;
  category D, 1200-2

   (c) The tables which appear as samples in (a) and (b) above are printed for area chart books, and should be kept with the Legend pages and Inoperative Components or Visual Aids Table at the front of each area chart book.
   (d) Straight-in minimums are shown on instrument approach procedure charts when the final approach course of the instrument approach procedure is within 30° of the runway alignment and a normal descent can be made from the IFR altitude shown on the instrument approach procedures to the runway surface. When either the normal rate of descent or the runway alignment factor of 30° is exceeded, a straight-in minimum is not published and a circling minimum applies. The fact that a straight-in minimum is not published does not preclude the pilot from landing straight-in if he has the active runway in sight in sufficient time to make a normal landing. Under such conditions and when Air Traffic Control has cleared him for landing on that runway, he is not expected to circle even though only circling minimums are published. If he desires to circle at a controlled Airport, he should advise ATC.
   (e) Circling minimums. The circling minimums published on the instrument approach chart provide adequate obstruction clearance and the pilot should not descend below the circling altitude until the aircraft is in a position to make final descent for landing. Sound judgement and knowledge of his and the aircraft capabilities are the criteria for a pilot to determine the exact maneuver in each instance since the airport design, the aircraft position, altitude and airspeed must all be considered. The following basic rules apply.
    1 Maneuver the shortest path to the base or downwind leg as appropriate under minimum weather conditions. There is no restriction from passing over the airport or other runways.
    2 It should be recognized that many circling maneuvers may be made while VFR flying is in progress at the airport. Standard left turns or specific instruction from the controller for maneuvering must be considered when circling to land.
    3 At airports without a control tower, it may be desirable to fly over the airport to determine wind and turn indicators, and to observe other traffic which may be on the runway or flying in the vicinity of the airport.
   (f) When the missed approach procedure specifies holding at a facility or fix, holding shall be in accordance with the holding pattern depicted on the plan view, and at the minimum altitude in the missed approach instructions, unless a higher altitude is specified by ATC. An alternate missed approach procedure may also be given by ATC.
   (g) There are various terms in the missed approach procedure which have specific meanings with respect to climbing to altitude, to execute a turn for obstruction avoidance, or for other reasons. Examples:
    `Climb to' means a normal climb along the prescribed course.
    `Climbing right turn' means climbing right turn as soon as safety permits, normally to avoid obstructions straight ahead.
    `Climb to 2400 turn right' means climb to 2400 prior to making the right turn, normally to clear obstructions.