PCG LAA -- LOW FREQUENCY
LAA -- LOW FREQUENCY
LAA- (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
LAAS- (See LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM.)
LAHSO- An acronym for "Land and Hold Short Operation." These operations
include landing and holding short of an intersecting runway, a taxiway,
a predetermined point, or an approach/departure flightpath.
LAHSO-DRY- Land and hold short operations on runways that are dry.
LAHSO-WET- Land and hold short operations on runways that are wet (but
LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS- Operations which include simultaneous
takeoffs and landings and/or simultaneous landings when a landing aircraft
is able and is instructed by the controller to hold-short of the intersecting
runway/taxiway or designated hold-short point. Pilots are expected to promptly
inform the controller if the hold short clearance cannot be accepted.
LANDING AREA- Any locality either on land, water, or structures, including
airports/heliports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended
to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft whether or not facilities
are provided for the shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging
passengers or cargo.
LANDING AREA [ICAO]- That part of a movement area intended for the landing
or takeoff of aircraft.
(See ICAO term LANDING AREA.)
LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR- A device which visually indicates the direction
in which landings and takeoffs should be made.
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]- The length of runway which is declared
available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
LANDING MINIMUMS- The minimum visibility prescribed for landing a civil
aircraft while using an instrument approach procedure. The minimum applies
with other limitations set forth in FAR Part 91 with respect to the Minimum
Descent Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) prescribed in the instrument
approach procedures as follows:
a. Straight-in landing minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility,
or DH and visibility, required for a straight - in landing on a specified
b. Circling minimums. A statement of MDA and visibility required
for the circle-to-land maneuver.
Note: Descent below the established MDA or DH is not authorized during
an approach unless the aircraft is in a position from which a normal approach
to the runway of intended landing can be made and adequate visual reference
to required visual cues is maintained.
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.)
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
LANDING ROLL- The distance from the point of touchdown to the point where
the aircraft can be brought to a stop or exit the runway.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
LANDING SEQUENCE- The order in which aircraft are positioned for landing.
LAST ASSIGNED ALTITUDE- The last altitude/flight level assigned by ATC
and acknowledged by the pilot.
LATERAL SEPARATION- The lateral spacing of aircraft at the same altitude
by requiring operation on different routes or in different geographical
LDA- (See LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID.)
LDA [ICAO]- (See ICAO Term LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.)
LF- (See LOW FREQUENCY.)
LIGHTED AIRPORT- An airport where runway and obstruction lighting is
LIGHT GUN- A handheld directional light signaling device which emits a
brilliant narrow beam of white, green, or red light as selected by the
tower controller. The color and type of light transmitted can be used to
approve or disapprove anticipated pilot actions where radio communication
is not available. The light gun is used for controlling traffic operating
in the vicinity of the airport and on the airport movement area.
LOCALIZER- The component of an ILS which provides course guidance to the
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
LOCALIZER COURSE [ICAO]- The locus of points, in any given horizontal plane,
at which the DDM (difference in depth of modulation) is zero.
(See ICAO term LOCALIZER COURSE.)
LOCALIZER OFFSET- An angular offset of the localizer from the runway
extended centerline in a direction away from the no transgression zone
(NTZ) that increases the normal operating zone (NOZ) width. An offset requires
a 50 foot increase in DH and is not authorized for CAT II and CAT III approaches.
LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID- A NAVAID used for nonprecision instrument
approaches with utility and accuracy comparable to a localizer but which
is not a part of a complete ILS and is not aligned with the runway.
LOCALIZER USABLE DISTANCE- The maximum distance from the localizer transmitter
at a specified altitude, as verified by flight inspection, at which reliable
course information is continuously received.
LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY [LAA]- A service provided by flight service stations
or the military at airports not serviced by an operating control tower.
This service consists of providing information to arriving and departing
aircraft concerning wind direction and speed, favored runway, altimeter
setting, pertinent known traffic, pertinent known field conditions, airport
taxi routes and traffic patterns, and authorized instrument approach procedures.
This information is advisory in nature and does not constitute an ATC clearance.
LOCAL TRAFFIC- Aircraft operating in the traffic pattern or within sight
of the tower, or aircraft known to be departing or arriving from flight
in local practice areas, or aircraft executing practice instrument approaches
at the airport.
LOCATOR [ICAO]- An LM/MF NDB used as an aid to final approach.
(See AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA.)
Note: A locator usually has an average radius of rated coverage of between
18.5 and 46.3 km (10 and 25 NM).
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION- The longitudinal spacing of aircraft at the
same altitude by a minimum distance expressed in units of time or miles.
LONG RANGE NAVIGATION- (See LORAN.)
LORAN- An electronic navigational system by which hyperbolic lines of
position are determined by measuring the difference in the time of reception
of synchronized pulse signals from two fixed transmitters. Loran A operates
in the 1750-1950 kHz frequency band. Loran C and D operate in the 100-110
kHz frequency band.
LOST COMMUNICATIONS- Loss of the ability to communicate by radio. Aircraft
are sometimes referred to as NORDO (No Radio). Standard pilot procedures
are specified in Part 91. Radar controllers issue procedures for pilots
to follow in the event of lost communications during a radar approach when
weather reports indicate that an aircraft will likely encounter IFR weather
conditions during the approach.
LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE- The network of airways serving aircraft
operations up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL.
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY-
(See SAFETY ALERT.)
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM- An automated function of the TPX-42 that
alerts the controller when a Mode C transponder - equipped aircraft on
an IFR flight plan is below a predetermined minimum safe altitude. If requested
by the pilot, LAAS monitoring is also available to VFR Mode C transponder
- equipped aircraft.
LOW APPROACH- An approach over an airport or runway following an instrument
approach or a VFR approach including the go-around maneuver where the pilot
intentionally does not make contact with the runway.
LOW FREQUENCY- The frequency band between 30 and 300 kHz.