PCG RADAR -- RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
RADAR -- RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE
RADAR- A device which, by measuring the time interval between transmission
and reception of radio pulses and correlating the angular orientation of
the radiated antenna beam or beams in azimuth and/or elevation, provides
information on range, azimuth, and/or elevation of objects in the path
of the transmitted pulses.
a. Primary Radar- A radar system in which a minute portion of
a radio pulse transmitted from a site is reflected by an object and then
received back at that site for processing and display at an air traffic
b. Secondary Radar/Radar Beacon (ATCRBS)- A radar system in
which the object to be detected is fitted with cooperative equipment in
the form of a radio receiver/transmitter (transponder). Radar pulses transmitted
from the searching transmitter/receiver (interrogator) site are received
in the cooperative equipment and used to trigger a distinctive transmission
from the transponder. This reply transmission, rather than a reflected
signal, is then received back at the transmitter/receiver site for processing
and display at an air traffic control facility.
(See ICAO term PRIMARY RADAR.)
RADAR [ICAO]- A radio detection device which provides information on range,
azimuth and/or elevation of objects.
(See ICAO term SECONDARY RADAR.)
a. Primary Radar- Radar system which uses reflected radio signals.
b. Secondary Radar- Radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted
from a radar station initiates the transmission of a radio signal from
RADAR ADVISORY- The provision of advice and information based on radar
RADAR ALTIMETER- (See RADIO ALTIMETER.)
RADAR APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which utilizes Precision
Approach Radar (PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR).
(See AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
(See SURVEILLANCE APPROACH.)
RADAR APPROACH [ICAO]- An approach, executed by an aircraft, under the
direction of a radar controller.
(See ICAO term RADAR APPROACH.)
RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY- A terminal ATC facility that uses radar
and nonradar capabilities to provide approach control services to aircraft
arriving, departing, or transiting airspace controlled by the facility
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
a. Provides radar ATC services to aircraft operating in the
vicinity of one or more civil and/or military airports in a terminal area.
The facility may provide services of a ground controlled approach (GCA);
i.e., ASR and PAR approaches. A radar approach control facility may be
operated by FAA, USAF, US Army, USN, USMC, or jointly by FAA and a military
service. Specific facility nomenclatures are used for administrative purposes
only and are related to the physical location of the facility and the operating
service generally as follows:
1. Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC) (Army).
2. Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF) (Navy/FAA).
3. Radar Approach Control (RAPCON) (Air Force/FAA).
4. Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) (FAA).
RADAR ARRIVAL- An aircraft arriving at an airport served by a radar facility
and in radar contact with the facility.
RADAR BEACON- (See RADAR.)
5. Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) (FAA). (Only those towers
delegated approach control authority.).
a. Used by ATC to inform an aircraft that it is identified on
the radar display and radar flight following will be provided until radar
identification is terminated. Radar service may also be provided within
the limits of necessity and capability. When a pilot is informed of "radar
contact," he automatically discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
(See RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING.)
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.)
b. The term used to inform the controller that the aircraft
is identified and approval is granted for the aircraft to enter the receiving
RADAR CONTACT LOST- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that radar
data used to determine the aircraft's position is no longer being received,
or is no longer reliable and radar service is no longer being provided.
The loss may be attributed to several factors including the aircraft merging
with weather or ground clutter, the aircraft operating below radar line
of sight coverage, the aircraft entering an area of poor radar return,
failure of the aircraft transponder, or failure of the ground radar equipment.
RADAR CLUTTER [ICAO]- The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted
(See ICAO term RADAR CONTACT.)
RADAR CONTACT [ICAO]- The situation which exists when the radar blip
or radar position symbol of a particular aircraft is seen and identified
on a radar display.
RADAR ENVIRONMENT- An area in which radar service may be provided.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING- The observation of the progress of radar identified
aircraft, whose primary navigation is being provided by the pilot, wherein
the controller retains and correlates the aircraft identity with the appropriate
target or target symbol displayed on the radar scope.
RADAR IDENTIFICATION- The process of ascertaining that an observed radar
target is the radar return from a particular aircraft.
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
RADAR IDENTIFICATION [ICAO]- The process of correlating a particular radar
blip or radar position symbol with a specific aircraft.
(See ICAO term RADAR IDENTIFICATION.)
RADAR IDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT- An aircraft, the position of which has been
correlated with an observed target or symbol on the radar display.
RADAR MONITORING- (See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
RADAR NAVIGATIONAL GUIDANCE- (See RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR POINT OUT- An action taken by a controller to transfer the radar
identification of an aircraft to another controller if the aircraft will
or may enter the airspace or protected airspace of another controller and
radio communications will not be transferred.
RADAR REQUIRED- A term displayed on charts and approach plates and included
in FDC NOTAM's to alert pilots that segments of either an instrument approach
procedure or a route are not navigable because of either the absence or
unusability of a NAVAID. The pilot can expect to be provided radar navigational
guidance while transiting segments labeled with this term.
RADAR ROUTE- A flight path or route over which an aircraft is vectored.
Navigational guidance and altitude assignments are provided by ATC.
RADAR SEPARATION- (See RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR SERVICE- A term which encompasses one or more of the following
services based on the use of radar which can be provided by a controller
to a pilot of a radar identified aircraft.
a. Radar Monitoring- The radar flight-following of aircraft,
whose primary navigation is being performed by the pilot, to observe and
note deviations from its authorized flight path, airway, or route. When
being applied specifically to radar monitoring of instrument approaches;
i.e., with precision approach radar (PAR) or radar monitoring of simultaneous
ILS/MLS approaches, it includes advice and instructions whenever an aircraft
nears or exceeds the prescribed PAR safety limit or simultaneous ILS/MLS
no transgression zone.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
b. Radar Navigational Guidance- Vectoring aircraft to provide
c. Radar Separation- Radar spacing of aircraft in accordance
with established minima.
RADAR SERVICE [ICAO]- Term used to indicate a service provided directly
by means of radar.
(See ICAO term RADAR SERVICE.)
a. Monitoring- The use of radar for the purpose of providing
aircraft with information and advice relative to significant deviations
from nominal flight path.
b. Separation- The separation used when aircraft position information
is derived from radar sources.
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that
he will no longer be provided any of the services that could be received
while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically terminated, and
the pilot is not advised in the following cases:
a. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except within Class
B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where Basic Radar service is provided.
b. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or contact
approach has landed or has been instructed to change to advisory frequency.
c. An arriving VFR aircraft, receiving radar service to a tower-controlled
airport within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where sequencing
service is provided, has landed; or to all other airports, is instructed
to change to tower or advisory frequency.
d. An aircraft completes a radar approach.
RADAR SURVEILLANCE- The radar observation of a given geographical area
for the purpose of performing some radar function.
RADAR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES- Advisories issued to alert pilots to known
or observed radar traffic which may affect the intended route of flight
of their aircraft.
RADAR TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE- (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
RADAR VECTORING [ICAO]- Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft
in the form of specific headings, based on the use of radar.
RADAR WEATHER ECHO INTENSITY LEVELS- Existing radar systems cannot detect
turbulence. However, there is a direct correlation between the degree of
turbulence and other weather features associated with thunderstorms and
the radar weather echo intensity. The National Weather Service has categorized
radar weather echo intensity for precipitation into six levels. These levels
are sometimes expressed during communications as "VIP LEVEL" 1 through
6 (derived from the component of the radar that produces the information-Video
Integrator and Processor). The following list gives the "VIP LEVELS" in
relation to the precipitation intensity within a thunderstorm:
RADIAL- A magnetic bearing extending from a VOR/VORTAC/TACAN navigation
(See AC 00-45, Aviation Weather Services.)
a. A device used for communication.
b. Used to refer to a flight service station; e.g., "Seattle
Radio" is used to call Seattle FSS.
RADIO ALTIMETER- Aircraft equipment which makes use of the reflection of
radio waves from the ground to determine the height of the aircraft above
RADIO BEACON- (See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING- (See RADAR.)
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR- An aircraft navigational instrument coupled
with a gyro compass or similar compass that indicates the direction of
a selected NAVAID and indicates bearing with respect to the heading of
RAMP- (See APRON.)
RANDOM ALTITUDE- An altitude inappropriate for direction of flight and/or
not in accordance with FAA Order 7110.65, paragraph 4-5-1, VERTICAL SEPARATION
RANDOM ROUTE- Any route not established or charted/published or not
otherwise available to all users.
RC- (See ROAD RECONNAISSANCE.)
RCAG- (See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND FACILITY.)
RCC- (See RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER.)
RCO- (See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.)
RCR- (See RUNWAY CONDITION READING.)
READ BACK- Repeat my message back to me.
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MONITORING (RAIM)- A technique whereby
a civil GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation
signals without reference to sensors or non-DoD integrity systems other
than the receiver itself. This determination is achieved by a consistency
check among redundant pseudorange measurements.
RECEIVING CONTROLLER- A controller/facility receiving control of an
aircraft from another controller/facility.
RECEIVING FACILITY- (See RECEIVING CONTROLLER.)
REDUCE SPEED TO (SPEED)- (See SPEED ADJUSTMENT.)
REIL- (See RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS.)
RELEASE TIME- A departure time restriction issued to a pilot by ATC
(either directly or through an authorized relay) when necessary to separate
a departing aircraft from other traffic.
RELEASE TIME [ICAO]- Time prior to which an aircraft should be given further
clearance or prior to which it should not proceed in case of radio failure.
(See ICAO term RELEASE TIME.)
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND FACILITY- An unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter/receiver
facility which is used to expand ARTCC air/ground communications coverage
and to facilitate direct contact between pilots and controllers. RCAG facilities
are sometimes not equipped with emergency frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243.0
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET- An unmanned communications facility remotely
controlled by air traffic personnel. RCO's serve FSS's. RTR's serve terminal
ATC facilities. An RCO or RTR may be UHF or VHF and will extend the communication
range of the air traffic facility. There are several classes of RCO's and
RTR's. The class is determined by the number of transmitters or receivers.
Classes A through G are used primarily for air/ground purposes. RCO and
RTR class O facilities are nonprotected outlets subject to undetected and
prolonged outages. RCO (O's) and RTR (O's) were established for the express
purpose of providing ground-to-ground communications between air traffic
control specialists and pilots located at a satellite airport for delivering
en route clearances, issuing departure authorizations, and acknowledging
instrument flight rules cancellations or departure/landing times. As a
secondary function, they may be used for advisory purposes whenever the
aircraft is below the coverage of the primary air/ground frequency.
REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER- (See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.)
REPORT- Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified
information; e.g., "Report passing Hamilton VOR."
REPORTING POINT- A geographical location in relation to which the position
of an aircraft is reported.
(See COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS.)
REPORTING POINT [ICAO]- A specified geographical location in relation to
which the position of an aircraft can be reported.
(See ICAO term REPORTING POINT.)
REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE- Used by pilots to request
that the entire route of flight be read verbatim in an ATC clearance. Such
request should be made to preclude receiving an ATC clearance based on
the original filed flight plan when a filed IFR flight plan has been revised
by the pilot, company, or operations prior to departure.
RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER- A search and rescue (SAR) facility equipped
and manned to coordinate and control SAR operations in an area designated
by the SAR plan. The U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force have responsibility
for the operation of RCC's.
RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE [ICAO]- A unit responsible for promoting efficient
organization of search and rescue service and for coordinating the conduct
of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.
(See ICAO term RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE.)
RESOLUTION ADVISORY-A display indication given to the pilot by the traffic
alert and collision avoidance systems (TCAS II) recommending a maneuver
to increase vertical separation relative to an intruding aircraft. Positive,
negative, and vertical speed limit (VSL) advisories constitute the resolution
advisories. A resolution advisory is also classified as corrective or preventive
RESTRICTED AREA- (See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
RESTRICTED AREA [ICAO]- An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land
areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft
is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
(See ICAO term RESTRICTED AREA.)
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION- Used by ATC to advise a pilot to
resume his own navigational responsibility. It is issued after completion
of a radar vector or when radar contact is lost while the aircraft is being
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
RESUME NORMAL SPEED- Used by ATC to advise a pilot that previously
issued speed control restrictions are deleted. An instruction to "resume
normal speed" does not delete speed restrictions that are applicable to
published procedures of upcoming segments of flight, unless specifically
stated by ATC. This does not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions
which are applicable to FAR 91.117.
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.)
RMI- (See RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR.)
RNAV- (See AREA NAVIGATION.)
RNAV [ICAO]- (See ICAO Term AREA NAVIGATION.)
RNAV APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which relies on aircraft
area navigation equipment for navigational guidance.
ROAD RECONNAISSANCE- Military activity requiring navigation along roads,
railroads, and rivers. Reconnaissance route/route segments are seldom along
a straight line and normally require a lateral route width of 10 NM to
30 NM and an altitude range of 500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
ROGER- I have received all of your last transmission.
It should not be used to answer a question requiring a yes or a no answer.
ROLLOUT RVR- (See VISIBILITY.)
ROUTE- A defined path, consisting of one or more courses in a horizontal
plane, which aircraft traverse over the surface of the earth.
ROUTE SEGMENT- As used in Air Traffic Control, a part of a route that can
be defined by two navigational fixes, two NAVAID's, or a fix and a NAVAID.
ROUTE SEGMENT [ICAO]- A portion of a route to be flown, as defined by two
consecutive significant points specified in a flight plan.
(See ICAO term ROUTE SEGMENT.)
RSA- (See RUNWAY SAFETY AREA.)
RTR- (See REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER.)
RUNWAY- A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the
landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length. Runways are normally
numbered in relation to their magnetic direction rounded off to the nearest
10 degrees; e.g., Runway 1, Runway 25.
RUNWAY [ICAO]- A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared
for the landing and takeoff of aircraft.
RUNWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTING- (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY CONDITION READING- Numerical decelerometer readings relayed by
air traffic controllers at USAF and certain civil bases for use by the
pilot in determining runway braking action. These readings are routinely
relayed only to USAF and Air National Guard Aircraft.
RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS- (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY GRADIENT- The average slope, measured in percent, between two
ends or points on a runway. Runway gradient is depicted on Government aerodrome
sketches when total runway gradient exceeds 0.3%.
RUNWAY HEADING- The magnetic direction that corresponds
with the runway centerline extended, not the painted runway number. When
cleared to "fly or maintain runway heading," pilots are expected to fly
or maintain the heading that corresponds with the extended centerline of
the departure runway. Drift correction shall not be applied; e.g., Runway
4, actual magnetic heading of the runway centerline 044, fly 044.
RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY RUNWAY- Any runway or runways currently
being used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways are used, they
are all considered active runways. In the metering sense, a selectable
adapted item which specifies the landing runway configuration or direction
of traffic flow. The adapted optimum flight plan from each transition fix
to the vertex is determined by the runway configuration for arrival metering
RUNWAY LIGHTS- (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY MARKINGS- (See AIRPORT MARKING AIDS.)
RUNWAY OVERRUN- In military aviation exclusively, a stabilized or paved
area beyond the end of a runway, of the same width as the runway plus shoulders,
centered on the extended runway centerline.
RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT- An instrument flight rules (IFR) air traffic
control arrival procedure to a runway published for pilot use in graphic
and/or textual form and may be associated with a STAR. Runway Profile Descents
provide routing and may depict crossing altitudes, speed restrictions,
and headings to be flown from the en route structure to the point where
the pilot will receive clearance for and execute an instrument approach
procedure. A Runway Profile Descent may apply to more than one runway if
so stated on the chart.
RUNWAY SAFETY AREA- A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared,
or suitable, for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event
of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway. The dimensions
of the RSA vary and can be determined by using the criteria contained within
AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3. Figure 3-1 in AC 150/5300-13
depicts the RSA. The design standards dictate that the RSA shall be:
a. Cleared, graded, and have no potentially hazardous ruts,
humps, depressions, or other surface variations;
b. Drained by grading or storm sewers to prevent water accumulation;
c. Capable, under dry conditions, of supporting snow removal
equipment, aircraft rescue and firefighting equipment, and the occasional
passage of aircraft without causing structural damage to the aircraft;
d. Free of objects, except for objects that need to be located
in the runway safety area because of their function. These objects shall
be constructed on low impact resistant supports (frangible mounted structures)
to the lowest practical height with the frangible point no higher than
3 inches above grade.
RUNWAY USE PROGRAM- A noise abatement runway selection plan designed to
enhance noise abatement efforts with regard to airport communities for
arriving and departing aircraft. These plans are developed into runway
use programs and apply to all turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier;
turbojet aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if the airport
proprietor determines that the aircraft creates a noise problem. Runway
use programs are coordinated with FAA offices, and safety criteria used
in these programs are developed by the Office of Flight Operations. Runway
use programs are administered by the Air Traffic Service as "Formal" or
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3.)
a. Formal Runway Use Program- An approved noise abatement program
which is defined and acknowledged in a Letter of Understanding between
Flight Operations, Air Traffic Service, the airport proprietor, and the
users. Once established, participation in the program is mandatory for
aircraft operators and pilots as provided for in FAR Part 91.129.
b. Informal Runway Use Program- An approved noise abatement
program which does not require a Letter of Understanding, and participation
in the program is voluntary for aircraft operators/pilots.
RUNWAY VISIBILITY VALUE- (See VISIBILITY.)
RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE- (See VISIBILITY.)