Powered Parachute Flying Handbook

Chapter 8 — Airspace Classification and Requirements

Military Operation Areas

Military operation areas (MOA) consist of airspace of defined vertical and lateral limits established for the purpose of separating certain military training activity from IFR traffic. There is no restriction against a pilot operating VFR in these areas; however, a pilot should be alert since training activities may include acrobatic and abrupt maneuvers. MOAs are depicted on aeronautical charts. MOAs may have altitude limitations and hours of operation.

Alert Areas

Alert areas are depicted on aeronautical charts and advise pilots that a high volume of pilot training or unusual aerial activity is taking place. You should be particularly vigilant while flying in this airspace due to the high volume of training activities.

Controlled Firing Areas

Controlled firing areas contain activities, which, if not conducted in a controlled environment, could be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The difference between controlled firing areas and other special use airspace is that activities must be suspended when a spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout position indicates an aircraft might be approaching the area.

Other Airspace Areas

“Other airspace areas” is a general term referring to the majority of the remaining airspace. It includes:

• Airport Advisory Areas.
• Military Training Routes (MTR).
• Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs).
• Parachute Jump Areas.
• Published VFR Routes.
• Terminal Radar Service Areas.
• National Security Areas.
• Flights over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas.

Airport Advisory Areas

An airport advisory area is an area within 10 statute miles (SM) of an airport where a control tower is not operating, but where a flight service station (FSS) is located. At these locations, the FSS provides advisory service to arriving and departing aircraft.

Military Training Routes

Military training routes (MTR) are developed to allow the military to conduct low-altitude, high speed training. The routes above 1,500 feet AGL are developed to be flown primarily under IFR, and the routes 1,500 feet and less are for VFR flight. The routes are identified on sectional charts by the designation “instrument (IR) or visual (VR).” MTRs with no segment above 1,500 feet AGL are identified by four number characters; e.g., IR1206, VR1207. MTRs that include one or more segments above 1,500 feet AGL are identified by three number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207.

Temporary Flight Restrictions

An FDC Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) will be issued to designate a temporary flight restriction (TFR). The NOTAM will begin with the phrase “FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS” followed by the location of the temporary restriction, effective time period, area defined in statute miles, and altitudes affected. The NOTAM will also contain the FAA coordination facility and telephone number, the reason for the restriction, and any other information deemed appropriate. You should check the NOTAMs as part of flight planning. Flight Service (1-800-WX-BRIEF) can advise you on current TFRs.

Some of the purposes for establishing a temporary restriction are:

• Protect persons and property in the air or on the surface from an existing or imminent hazard.
• Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft.
• Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft above an incident or event, which may generate a high degree of public interest.
• Protect declared national disasters for humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii.
• Protect the President, Vice President, or other public figures.
• Provide a safe environment for space agency operations.

Parachute Jump Areas

Parachute jump areas are published in the Airport/ Facility Directory. Sites that are used frequently are depicted on sectional charts.

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