Chapter 8 — Airspace Classification and Requirements
Military Operation Areas
Military operation areas (MOA) consist of airspace of
defined vertical and lateral limits established for the
purpose of separating certain military training activity
from IFR traffic. There is no restriction against a pilot
operating VFR in these areas; however, a pilot should
be alert since training activities may include acrobatic
and abrupt maneuvers. MOAs are depicted on aeronautical
charts. MOAs may have altitude limitations
and hours of operation.
Alert areas are depicted on aeronautical charts and
advise pilots that a high volume of pilot training or
unusual aerial activity is taking place. You should be
particularly vigilant while flying in this airspace due
to the high volume of training activities.
Controlled Firing Areas
Controlled firing areas contain activities, which, if
not conducted in a controlled environment, could be
hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The difference
between controlled firing areas and other special use
airspace is that activities must be suspended when a
spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout position indicates
an aircraft might be approaching the area.
Other Airspace Areas
“Other airspace areas” is a general term referring to
the majority of the remaining airspace. It includes:
• Airport Advisory Areas.
• Military Training Routes (MTR).
• Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs).
• Parachute Jump Areas.
• Published VFR Routes.
• Terminal Radar Service Areas.
• National Security Areas.
• Flights over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges,
Parks, and Forest Service Areas.
Airport Advisory Areas
An airport advisory area is an area within 10 statute
miles (SM) of an airport where a control tower is not
operating, but where a flight service station (FSS) is
located. At these locations, the FSS provides advisory
service to arriving and departing aircraft.
Military Training Routes
Military training routes (MTR) are developed to allow
the military to conduct low-altitude, high speed training.
The routes above 1,500 feet AGL are developed
to be flown primarily under IFR, and the routes 1,500
feet and less are for VFR flight. The routes are identified
on sectional charts by the designation “instrument
(IR) or visual (VR).” MTRs with no segment above
1,500 feet AGL are identified by four number characters;
e.g., IR1206, VR1207. MTRs that include one or
more segments above 1,500 feet AGL are identified
by three number characters; e.g., IR206, VR207.
Temporary Flight Restrictions
An FDC Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) will be issued
to designate a temporary flight restriction (TFR). The
NOTAM will begin with the phrase “FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS”
followed by the location of the temporary
restriction, effective time period, area defined
in statute miles, and altitudes affected. The NOTAM
will also contain the FAA coordination facility and
telephone number, the reason for the restriction,
and any other information deemed appropriate. You
should check the NOTAMs as part of flight planning.
Flight Service (1-800-WX-BRIEF) can advise you on
Some of the purposes for establishing a temporary
• Protect persons and property in the air or on the
surface from an existing or imminent hazard.
• Provide a safe environment for the operation of
disaster relief aircraft.
• Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing
aircraft above an incident or event, which may
generate a high degree of public interest.
• Protect declared national disasters for
humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii.
• Protect the President, Vice President, or other
• Provide a safe environment for space agency
Parachute Jump Areas
Parachute jump areas are published in the Airport/
Facility Directory. Sites that are used frequently are
depicted on sectional charts.