fixed blade angles. Fixed-pitch propellers are
designed as climb propellers, cruise propellers, or
An aircraft whose
wing is rigidly attached to the structure. The term
fixed-wing is used to distinguish these aircraft
from rotary-wing aircraft, such as helicopters and
The slow, smooth transition from a normal
approach attitude to a landing attitude. This maneuver
is accomplished in a PPC by pulling down
on the steering lines to increase drag, reducing the
forward speed and decreasing the rate of descent.
PLAN—Specified information relating to
the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed orally
or in writing with an FSS or an ATC facility.
The four fundamental forces of
flight: lift, weight, drag and thrust.
The principle of operation
for some reciprocating engines involving the
conversion of fuel energy into mechanical energy.
The strokes are called intake, compression, power,
FAA Flight Service Station.
The path of an aircraft relative to the
ground while approaching a landing.
The ratio of the forward distance
traveled to the vertical distance an aircraft descends
when it is operating without power. For
example, an aircraft with a glide ratio of 10:1 will
descend about 1,000 feet for every 2 miles (10,560
feet) it moves forward.
Loads imposed on an airframe due to
inertia (centrifugal force). 1G of load factor represents
the weight of the actual aircraft. 2G represents
effectively twice the aircraft’s actual weight.
GLOBAL POSITION SYSTEM (GPS)
radio positioning, navigation, and timetransfer
The termination of a landing
approach. Reference the AIM Pilot/Controller
GO OR NO-GO DECISION
Decision of whether
or not to make a flight based on environmental,
personal or mechanical factors. A focus area for
human factors study.
See GLOBAL POSITION SYSTEM.
of aircraft propeller whose blade pitch angle can
be adjusted when the engine is not running. The
adjustment requires loosening the blades in the
A condition of improved performance
encountered when an airfoil is operating
very close to the ground. When an airfoil is under
the influence of ground effect, there is a reduction
in upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices. As
a result of the reduced wingtip vortices, induced
drag is reduced.
The actual speed of an aircraft
over the ground. It is true airspeed adjusted
for wind. Groundspeed decreases with a headwind,
and increases with a tailwind.
The aircraft’s path over the
ground when in flight.
HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY
Recorded weather forecasts
broadcast to airborne pilots over selected VORs.
A wind which blows from the direction
the aircraft is flying. The ground speed of an
aircraft (the speed the aircraft is moving over the
ground) is less than the speed through the air by
the velocity of the headwind.
See HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER
An instrument installed in many
aircraft to show the actual number of hours the
engine has operated. The hour meter is an electrical
clock that starts when the engine oil pressure
builds up, and runs until the engine is shut down
and the oil pressure drops to zero.
Occurs when an individual
is experiencing emotional stress, fright, or
pain, and the breathing rate and depth increase,
although the carbon dioxide level in the blood is
already at a reduced level. The result is an excessive
loss of carbon dioxide from the body, which
can lead to unconsciousness due to the respiratory
system’s overriding mechanism to regain control
State of oxygen deficiency in the body
sufficient to impair functions of the brain and
See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.
An occurrence other than an accident,
associated with the operation of an aircraft, which
affects or could affect the safety of operations.
That part of total drag which
is created by the production of lift. Induced drag
increases with a decrease in airspeed.
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR)
governing the procedures for conducting instrument
flight. Also a term used by pilots and controllers
to indicate type of flight plan.