Any occurrence at an
airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or
object on the ground that creates a collision hazard
or results in loss of separation with an aircraft taking
off, intending to takeoff, landing, or intending
See SEARCH AND RESCUE.
Systematic means of searching for
other aircraft. Scanning is most effective when
successive areas of the sky are brought into focus
using a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements.
SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR)
service provided through the combined efforts of
the federal agencies signatory to the National SAR
plan along with state agencies.
SECTIONAL AERONAUTICAL CHARTS Designed for visual navigation of slow or medium
speed aircraft. Topographic information on
these charts features the portrayal of relief, and a
judicious selection of visual check points for VFR
flight. Aeronautical information includes visual
and radio aids to navigation, airports, controlled
airspace, restricted areas, obstructions and related
SEE AND AVOID
When weather conditions
permit, pilots operating IFR or VFR are required
to observe and maneuver to avoid other aircraft.
Right-of-way rules are contained in 14 CFR part
A visual indicator around
a windsock or tetrahedron designed to show the
traffic pattern for each runway.
Turns in which the
bank (less than approximately 20 degrees) is so
shallow that inherent lateral stability of the PPC is
acting to level the wings unless the pilot maintains
SINGLE PILOT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Area of human factors study that addresses
application of management skills in the
cockpit. Single pilots of small aircraft must make
effective use of all available resources; human
resources, hardware, and information.
perception and understanding of all the factors and
conditions within the four fundamental risk elements
that affect safety before, during, and after
SKILLS AND PROCEDURES
psychomotor, and perceptual skills used to control
a specific aircraft or its systems. They are the airmanship
abilities that are gained through conventional training, are perfected, and become almost
automatic through experience.
The outside covering of an aircraft airframe.
SKIN FRICTION DRAG
The type of parasite drag
resulting from a rough surface which deflects the
streamlines of air on the surface, causing resistance
to smooth airflow.
S-LSA (SPECIAL LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT)
An aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate
in accordance with 14 CFR 21.290 in
the light-sport category. These aircraft meet the
ASTM industry-developed consensus standards.
Flight that is conducted and
logged when a pilot is the sole occupant of an
to the lack of orientation with regard to the position,
attitude, or movement of the PPC in space.
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Airspace that exists
where activities must be confined because of their
SPORT PILOT CERTIFICATE
pilot certificate, allowing the holder to operate a
light-sport aircraft in the category, class, make and
model for which they are endorsed to do so.
See SINGLE PILOT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.
A landing approach
in which the pilot establishes and maintains a
constant angle glidepath towards a predetermined
point on the landing runway. It is based on the pilot’s
judgment of certain visual cues, and depends
on the maintenance of a constant final descent
airspeed and configuration.
A rapid decrease in lift caused by the separation
of airflow from the wing’s surface brought
on by exceeding the critical angle of attack. A stall
can occur at any pitch attitude or airspeed.
STANDARD AIRPORT TRAFFIC PATTERN The
left-hand turn traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft
landing at, taxiing on, or taking off from an
airport. Reference 14 CFR 91.126 (a)(1) and AIM
Chapter 4 Section 3.
The pressure of air that is
still, or not moving, measured perpendicular to the
surface exposed to the air.
Turn resulting from a degree of
bank (45 degrees or more) at which the overbanking
tendency of a PPC overcomes stability, and
the bank increases unless the steering controls are
applied to prevent it.
Located just aft of the nosewheel
and mounted on each side of the aircraft, the steering bars move forward and back when the
pilot applies foot pressure. Pushing either one of
the steering bars causes the steering lines to pull
down on the corresponding surface of the trailing
edge on the wing which banks the PPC into a turn.