Certificated parachute riggers represent a professional cadre within the parachute community. According to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 65, subsection 65.129(f)(1), “No certificated parachute rigger may exercise the privileges of his certificate and type rating unless he understands the current manufacturer’s instructions for the operation involved and has performed duties under his certificate for at least 90 days within the preceding 12 months.”

Manufacturers of main parachutes have packing techniques that they have developed for their products. Most of them follow established methods in common use. Experience has shown that if the packing techniques required for a specific main are too complex, the market may not receive them favorably.


The most common packing method used today is the Proper Ram-air Orientation (PRO) packing. Figures 4-1 thru 4-32 show this technique. There are several variations to this technique designed for special purposes. Free fall cameramen may require a slower opening to reduce the opening shock. Canopy Relative Work (CRW) parachutists may want faster sub-terminal openings. The rigger should be able to provide guidance to the parachutist for the type of opening required.

















When packing reserves and emergency parachutes, the rigger must adhere to the manufacturer’s instructions and is not allowed to deviate from them. When packing main parachutes, the manufacturer may specify a certain packing method but then gives guidance and leeway for alternative methods to use to vary the opening according to the needs of the parachutist.

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