The purpose of the following information is NOT to
make you an accomplished sewing machine expert and
repairman. You should learn the basics about what makes
your sewing machines work and how to perform routine
maintenance and service. If you don’t, you will suffer
needless frustration for simple problems, and it will cost
you excessively in down time and service repair bills. The
information on troubleshooting provides you with the
basic knowledge needed to keep your machines running.
Some individuals find that they have an affinity for
repairing and maintaining sewing machines. For those of
you who do not, cultivate relationships with these people
carefully. They will be most valuable to you.
Figure 6-64 shows the front view of a modern lightduty
single needle machine. The numbers correspond
with the description.
1. Machine head—This is the actual machine assembly.
2. Table top—This holds the head in position and the
3. Stand—This supports the table top.
4. Motor—This powers the sewing machine.
5. Treadle—This is the “gas pedal” which operates the
motor. Pushing forward makes motor start and pushing
backward stops the motor.
6. On/off switch—Controls power to the motor.
7. Thread stand—This holds the spools of thread for
both the sewing machine and the bobbin winder.
8. Bobbin winder—This feeds the thread to the bobbin
during the winding process.
9. Light—A good light is necessary to observe the
Figure 6-65 shows a closeup of the head only. Only those
parts, which the rigger must deal with on a regular basis
in order to operate and maintain the machine, are shown.
For those individuals who wish to become more involved
in the machine, a thorough study of the operator’s manual
and parts manual is encouraged. The following numbers
correspond with the part description.
1. Bed—The base of the machine.
2. Arm—The upper casing of the machine.
3. Uprise—The upright part of the machine that joins
the base and the arm.
4. Faceplate—The cover that protects the needle bar
and presser bar mechanisms.
5. Balance wheel—The pulley assembly that drives the
machine via the motor and belt.
6. Reverse lever—The mechanism that, when
depressed, reverses the sewing operation of the
7. Stitch regulator—The adjustor that controls the
length of the stitch. The larger the number, the longer
the stitch, and the smaller the number, the shorter the
8. Pre-tension thread guide—The assembly that provides
initial thread tension and thread straightening
before the thread reaches the main upper thread tension
9. Thread retainer—Provides direct guidance for the
thread to the upper tension assembly.
10. Thread take-up cover—Covers the thread take-up
lever and protects the operator.
11. Right arm thread guide—Provides thread guidance
from the upper tension assembly to the thread takeup
12. Upper tension regulating thumbscrew—Regulates
pressure of the tension discs on the thread.
13. Thread controller spring—Provides for the correct
amount of slack in the needle thread when the needleis descending so that the needle does not cut the
14. Tension discs—Provide tension on the upper thread.
15. Presser bar tension nut—Regulates the pressure of
the presser foot on the material.
16. Thread take-up lever—Provides for slack in the
needle thread after the stitch is formed and pulls the
correct amount of thread from the spool for the next
17. Needle bar—Holds the needle and carries the upper
thread downward through the material to where the
stitch is formed.
18. Presser foot bar—Holds the presser foot in place to
hold pressure on the material.
19. Presser foot—Holds the material in place while the
feed dog moves the material forward for the next
20. Needle plate—Surrounds the feed dog and protects
the material during the movement process.
21. Slide plate—Covers the area of the bed to the left of
the feed dog and provides access to the bobbin
22. Feed dog—Feeds the material through the machine
from the underside.