PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR TAKEOFF, CLIMB, CRUISE, AND LANDING
Since many pilots are accustomed to a certain level of performance from a specific make and model of land airplane, the changes in performance when that same airplane is equipped with floats can lead to trouble for a careless or complacent pilot. Floats weigh somewhat more than the wheeled landing gear they replace, but floats are designed to produce aerodynamic lift to offset some of the weight penalty. Generating lift inevitably creates induced drag, which imposes a small reduction in overall performance. By far the greatest impact on performance comes from the parasitic drag of the floats.
In a landplane, takeoff distance increases with additional takeoff weight for two reasons: it takes longer for the engine and propeller to accelerate the greater mass to lift-off speed, and the lift-off speed itself is higher because the wings must move faster to produce the extra lift required. For seaplanes, there are two more factors, both due to water drag. As seaplane weight increases, the floats sink deeper into the water, creating more drag during initial acceleration. As with the landplane, the seaplane must also accelerate to a higher airspeed to generate more lift, but the seaplane must overcome significantly more water drag force as speed increases. This extra drag reduces the rate of acceleration and results in a longer takeoff run.
Naturally, the location of the additional weight within the seaplane affects center of gravity (CG) location. Because of the way the floats respond to weight, the CG location affects the seaplane’s handling characteristics on the water. If the CG is too far aft, it may be impossible to put the seaplane on the step. If the CG is located to one side of the centerline, one float will be pushed deeper into the water, resulting in more water drag on that side. Be sure to balance the fuel load between left and right wing tanks, and pay attention to how baggage or cargo is secured, so that the weight is distributed somewhat evenly from side to side. [Figure 5-1]
The importance to weight and balance of pumping out the float compartments should be obvious. Water weighs 8.34 pounds per gallon, or a little over 62 pounds per cubic foot. Performance decreases whenever the wings and engine have to lift and carry useless water in a float compartment. Even a relatively small amount of water in one of the front or rear float compartments could place the airplane well outside of CG limits and seriously affect stability and control. Naturally, water also moves around in response to changes in attitude, and the sloshing of water in the floats can create substantial CG changes as the seaplane is brought onto the step or rotated into a climb attitude.
Some pilots use float compartments near the CG to stow iced fish or game from hunting expeditions. It is imperative to adhere to the manufacturer’s weight and balance limitations and to include the weight and moment of float compartment contents in weight and balance calculations.
Density altitude is a very important factor in seaplane takeoff performance. High altitudes, high temperatures, high humidity, and even low barometric pressure can combine to rob the engine and propeller of thrust and the wings of lift. Seaplane pilots are encouraged to occasionally simulate high density altitude by using a reduced power setting for takeoff. This exercise should only be attempted where there is plenty of water area, as the takeoff run will be much longer. An experienced seaplane instructor can assist with choosing an appropriate power setting and demonstrating proper technique.
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