CLIMB AND CRUISE
When comparing the performance of an airplane with wheels to the same airplane equipped with floats, the drag and weight penalty of the floats usually results in a reduced climb rate for any given weight. Likewise, cruise speeds will usually be a little lower for a particular power setting. This in turn means increased fuel consumption and reduced range. Unless the airplane was originally configured as a seaplane, the performance and flight planning information for a landplane converted to floats will typically be found in the Supplements section rather than the Performance section of the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH).
In addition to working within the limits of the seaplane’s range, the pilot planning a cross-country flight must also consider the relative scarcity of refueling facilities for seaplanes. Amphibians have access to land airports, of course, but seaplanes without wheels need to find water landing facilities that also sell aviation fuel. While planning the trip, it is wise to call ahead to verify that the facilities have fuel and will be open at the intended arrival times. The Seaplane Pilots Association publishes a Water Landing Directory that is very helpful in planning cross-country flights.
In flight, the seaplane handles very much like the corresponding landplane. On many floatplanes, the floats decrease directional stability to some extent. The floats typically have more vertical surface area ahead of the airplane’s CG than behind it. If the floats remain aligned with the airflow, this causes no problems, but if the airplane begins to yaw or skid, this vertical area acts somewhat like a large control surface that tends to increase the yaw, making the skid worse. [Figure 5-2] Additional vertical surface well behind the CG can counteract the yaw force created by the front of the floats, so many floatplanes have an auxiliary fin attached to the bottom of the tail, or small vertical surfaces added to the horizontal stabilizer. [Figure 5-3]
Landplane pilots are trained to stay on the lookout for good places to land in an emergency, and to be able to plan a glide to a safe touchdown should the engine(s) fail. An airplane equipped with floats will usually have a steeper power-off glide than the same airplane with wheels. This means a higher rate of descent and a diminished glide range in the event of an engine failure, so the pilot should keep this in mind when spotting potential landing areas during cruising flight.
Seaplanes often permit more options in the event of an unplanned landing, since land can be used as well as water. While a water landing may seem like the only choice for a non-amphibious seaplane, a smooth landing on grass, dirt, or even a hard-surface runway usually causes very little damage to the floats or hull, and may frequently be the safer alternative.
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