CHAPTER 11. Approaches and Landings

Use of Power

Power can be used if required during the approach and roundout to compensate for errors in judgment. The pilot should be ready to use the foot throttle while managing the energy throughout the landing, utilizing energy management procedures for the current landing conditions. Power can be added to reduce the descent rate if needed; thus, the descent can be slowed to an acceptable rate. After the aircraft has touched down, it is necessary to close the throttle to remove additional thrust and lift allowing the aircraft to stay on the ground.

High Roundout

Sometimes when the aircraft appears to stop moving downward temporarily, the roundout has been made too rapidly and the aircraft is fl ying level, too high and too slow above the runway. Continuing the roundout would further reduce the airspeed, resulting in an increase in AOA to the critical angle. This would result in the aircraft stalling and dropping hard onto the runway. To prevent the hard drop, pitch attitude should be reduced slightly to increase speed to approach speed while throttle is added to maintain altitude. After speed has been increased and altitude maintained, the throttle and speed can both be reduced smoothly and gradually for a gradual descent with a normal roundout and touchdown.

Although speed is needed after the high roundout is noticed in order to be corrected, the power application must be enough to remain level and not initially descend as the speed is increased. Energy management profi ciency is critical. If too little throttle is added, the momentary decrease in lift that would result from lowering the nose and decreasing the AOA may be so great that the aircraft might contact the ground with the nosewheel fi rst, which could then collapse. As for all landing maneuvers that are questionable and the outcome is uncertain, it is recommended that a go-around be executed.

Late or Rapid Roundout

Starting the roundout too late or pushing the control forward too rapidly to prevent the aircraft from touching down prematurely balloons the aircraft up above the runway. Suddenly increasing the AOA and stalling the aircraft during a roundout is a dangerous situation since it may cause the aircraft to land extremely hard on the main landing gear and then bounce back into the air.

Recovery from this situation requires prompt and positive application of power and a lowering of the nose to increase speed prior to occurrence of the stall. This may be followed by a normal landing, if suffi cient runway is available, similar to the high roundout discussed above—otherwise the pilot should immediately execute a go-around.

Floating During Roundout

If the airspeed on fi nal approach is excessive, it usually results in the aircraft fl oating in ground effect. This is not a problem if there is plenty of runway and if the pilot fl oats with the wheels just inches above the surface. Simply maintain this position inches above the runway, slowly rounding out as required until the speed bleeds off for a normal touchdown. If conditions are turbulent, the nose can be lowered gradually and the aircraft fl own onto the ground, as discussed earlier in the landing in turbulence procedures.

If the aircraft is well past the desired landing point and the available runway is insuffi cient, perform a go-around immediately.

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