CHAPTER 13. Abnormal and Emergency Procedures

Landing Gear Malfunction

If there is any landing gear malfunction before or during takeoff, the fl ight or takeoff should be aborted and the malfunction fixed before attempting another takeoff. However, if a malfunction takes place during or after takeoff in which the landing gear is not completely functional for landing, the situation should be evaluated using aeronautical decision-making (ADM) to make the best choice based on the outcome of the situation.

If a tire falls off, a known fl at of the tire is evident, or a landing gear strut has shaken loose or become damaged, precautionary measures must be taken to minimize the results from landing with a defective landing gear.

Fly to a smooth runway where the WSC aircraft can skid and not stop abruptly and tumble. Inform the local ATC, UNICOM, or multicom frequency that there is a MAYDAY in order to obtain immediate help for a crash landing.

There is no hurry to land, so use ADM to survey the situation and make the best decision on where and how to land. Find a location that has medical support, a smooth runway that minimizes abrupt stops/tumbling, and land into the wind for the best outcome. Attempt to make a normal approach into the wind with the lowest possible speed to touchdown.

Inadvertant Propeller Strike

A propeller strike in a pusher WSC aircraft is more dangerous than in any other aircraft. If an object or the propeller is fl ung up into the wing trailing edge, a structural failure could occur. This situation should not be underestimated or ignored.

Procedures should be implemented and followed to avoid propeller strikes from articles fl ying out of the fl ight deck. Passengers sitting in the back are the greatest risk to propeller strikes. A comprehensive prefl ight brief with proper fl ight deck management procedures should reveal any open pockets or items that could dislodge and fl y into the propeller. The passenger in the back should be instructed not to take off gloves, helmet, or glasses, or pull out a camera/mobile phone without a lanyard. However, the passenger in the rear seat cannot be monitored completely; it is possible that items could fl y out of the fl ight deck and go through the propeller, presenting a serious situation.

If a bird strike occurs or anything else hits the propeller, reduce throttle immediately and evaluate the situation. The severity of the vibration is the key element to determining what to do. If the vibration is severe, shut off the engine and make an emergency landing. Minor vibration can be tolerated, but the risk of fl ying with a damaged propeller, which could dislodge and hit the sail, should be minimized. It is best to shut down the engine and perform an emergency landing.

Stuck or Runaway Throttle

Throttles can stick above idle or unexpectedly increase, which is called a runaway throttle. If on the ground, a runaway throttle can be disastrous if not anticipated and mitigated. A pilot (and instructor, if teaching) should always have access to the ignition system in order to shut it off immediately in the event of a throttle stuck above idle or a runaway throttle. A runaway throttle can be caused by the pilot or student pushing on the throttle pedal during taxi or startup, thinking it is the right brake, as in an airplane. Setting the cruise throttle to full open rather than full closed during startup also causes a runaway throttle. On startup, the checklists must be followed, including cruise throttle closed, foot off of foot throttle, brake on, propeller cleared, etc. The PIC must have control of the ignition to shut it off immediately during startup and taxi.

A runaway or stuck throttle during fl ight can be handled by climbing or fl ying to a suitable location where the engine can be shut off and a safe engine-off landing can be made.

Abnormal Engine Instrument Indications

The AFM/POH for the specifi c aircraft contains information that should be followed in the event of any abnormal engine instrument indications. The table in Figure 13-8 offers generic information on some of the more commonly experienced infl ight abnormal engine instrument indications, their possible causes, and corrective actions. It is important to know that when an engine temperature probe fails, it usually reads an unusually low value, zero, or does not register. This should be taken into account when evaluating the situation with engine instruments.

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