|CHAPTER 6. Flight Manuevers
Climbs and Climbing Turns
When an aircraft enters a climb, it changes its fl ightpath from level fl ight to an inclined plane or climb attitude. As discussed in chapter 2, weight in a climb no longer acts in a direction perpendicular to the fl ightpath. It acts in a rearward direction. This causes an increase in total drag requiring an increase in thrust (power) to balance the forces. An aircraft can only sustain a climb angle when there is suffi cient thrust to offset increased drag; therefore, climb is limited by the thrust available. [Figure 6-13]
Like other maneuvers, climbs should be performed using outside visual references and flight instruments. It is important that the pilot know the engine power settings and pitch attitudes that produce the following conditions of climb:
Climbing flight requires more power than flying level, as described in chapter 2. When performing a climb, the normal climb speed should be established and the power should be advanced to the climb power recommended by the manufacturer. As the aircraft gains altitude during a climb, the engine has a loss in power because the same volume of air entering the engine’s induction system gradually decreases in density as altitude increases.
During a climb, a constant heading should be held with the wings level if a straight climb is being performed, or a constant angle of bank and rate of turn if a climbing turn is being performed. To return to straight-and-level fl ight, when approaching the target altitude, increase the speed to the cruise setting (if different) and decrease throttle for level fl ight. After the aircraft is established in level fl ight at a constant altitude and the desired speed, the aircraft should be trimmed (if equipped with an in fl ight trim system).
In the performance of climbing turns, the following factors should be considered.
There are two ways to establish a climbing turn. Either establish a straight climb and then turn, or enter the climb and turn simultaneously. Climbing turns should be used when climbing to the local practice area. Climbing turns allow better visual scanning, and it is easier for other pilots to see a turning aircraft.
In any turn, the loss of vertical lift and increased induced drag due to increased angle of attack becomes greater as the angle of bank is increased. So, shallow turns should be used to maintain an effi cient rate of climb. All the factors that affect the aircraft during level (constant altitude) turns affect it during climbing turns or any other maneuver.
Common errors in the performance of climbs and climbing turns are:
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