CHAPTER 9. Ground Reference Maneuvers

The early part of a pilotís training is conducted at relatively high altitudes for the purpose of developing technique, knowledge of maneuvers, coordination, feel, and the handling of the aircraft in general. This training requires that most of the pilotís attention be given to the actual handling of the aircraft, the results of control pressures on the action, and attitude of the aircraft.

As soon as the pilot shows profi ciency in the fundamental maneuvers, it is necessary that he or she be introduced to ground reference maneuvers requiring attention beyond practical application and current knowledge base.

It should be stressed that during ground reference maneuvers, it is equally important that previously learned basic fl ying technique be maintained. The fl ight instructor should not allow any relaxation of the studentís previous standard of technique simply because a new factor is added. This requirement should be maintained throughout the studentís progress from maneuver to maneuver. Each new maneuver should embody some advanced knowledge and include principles of the preceding maneuver in order to maintain continuity. Each new skill introduced should build on one already learned so that orderly, consistent progress can be made.

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