Glossary   K - O

KIAS   Knots indicated airspeed

Kinesthesia   The sensing of movements by feel

King post   The post on top of the wing which is attached to the keel that holds used for the ground wires which hold up the wings on the ground and during negative loads during flight

Knowledge exam   See FAA Knowledge Exam

Lateral axis   An imaginary line passing through the center of gravity of a WSC and extending across the WSC from one side of the aircraft to the other side

Leading edge   The part of an airfoil that meets the airflow first This as a structural tube on the WSC airfoil

Lift   One of the four main forces acting on an aircraft On a WSC, an upward force created by the effect of airflow as it passes over and under the wing

Lift coefficient   A coefficient representing the lift of a given airfoil Lift coefficient is obtained by dividing the lift by the free-stream dynamic pressure and the representative area under consideration

Lift/drag ratio   The efficiency of an airfoil section It is the ratio of the coefficient of lift to the coefficient of drag for any given angle of attack

Lift-off   The act of becoming airborne as a result of the wings lifting the airplane off the ground, or the pilot rotating the nose up, increasing the angle of attack to start a climb

Light-Sport Aircraft (LSA)   An aircraft that meets the requirements defined in 14 CFR section 1 1, regardless of airworthiness certification

Limit load factor   Amount of stress, or load factor, that an aircraft can withstand before structural damage or failure occurs

Load factor   The ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertial forces, or ground or water reactions Also referred to as G-loading

Logbook   A record of activities: flight, instruction, inspection and maintenance Reference 14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR section 61 51, and 14 CFR section 91 417

Longitude   Measurement east or west of the Prime Meridian in degrees, minutes, and seconds The Prime Meridian is 0° longitude and runs through Greenwich, England Lines of longitude are also referred to as meridians

Longitudinal axis   An imaginary line through an aircraft from nose to tail, passing through its center of gravity about which the aircraft rolls in flight The longitudinal axis is also called the roll axis of the aircraft

Longitudinal stability (pitching)   Stability about the lateral axis A desirable characteristic of an airplane whereby it tends to return to its trimmed angle of attack after displacement

LSA   See Light-Sport Aircraft

MAC   See mean aerodynamic chord

Magnetic compass   A device for determining direction measured from magnetic north

Magneto   A self-contained engine-driven unit that supplies electrical current to the spark plugs, completely independent of the airplane’s electrical system Normally there are two magnetos per engine

Make/model   Refers to the manufacturer and model of a specific aircraft

Maneuvering altitude   An altitude above the ground that allows a sufficient margin of height to permit safe maneuvering

Maneuvering speed (VA)   The maximum speed at which full, abrupt control movement can be used without overstressing the airframe

Maneuverability   Ability of an aircraft to change directions along a flightpath and withstand the stresses imposed upon it

Mast   The carriage structural component that is attached to the rear of the carriage keel and the top of the front tube The top is the carriage attachment the wing

Maximum gross weight   The maximum authorized weight of the aircraft and all of its equipment as specified in the POH/AFM/AOI for the aircraft

Maximum structure cruising speed (VNO)   The speed not to exceed except in smooth air; the upper limit of the green arc

Mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)   The average distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing

Mean sea level (MSL)   The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of tide A number preceding MSL indicates altitude in feet above mean sea level

Mechanical Turbulence   Type of turbulence caused by obstructions on the ground interfering with smooth flow of the wind Trees, buildings and terrain can all cause mechanical turbulence

Medical certificate   Acceptable evidence of physical fitness on a form prescribed by the Administrator

Medium-banked turn   Turn resulting from a degree of bank (approximately 20 to 45 degrees) at which the WSC remains at a constant bank

METAR   See Aviation Routine Weather Report

Microburts   A strong downdraft which normally occurs over horizontal distances of 1 NM or less and vertical distances of less than 1,000 feet In spite of its small horizontal scale, an intense microburst could induce windspeeds greater than 100 knots and downdrafts as strong as 6,000 feet per minute

Military Operations Area (MOA)   Airspace of defined vertical and lateral limits established for the purpose of separating certain military training activity from IFR traffic

Military Training Routes (MTR)   Special routes developed to allow the military to conduct low-altitude, high-speed training

Minimum controllable airspeed   An airspeed at which any further increase in angle of attack, increase in load factor, or reduction in power, would result in an immediate stall

Minimum drag speed (L/DMAX)   The point on the total drag curve where the lift-to-drag ratio is the greatest At this speed, total drag is minimized

Mindset   A factor in aeronautical decision making where decision making is influenced by preconceived ideas about the outcome of events For example, an expectation of improving weather conditions can lead to increased risk during a flight

Mixture   The ratio of fuel to air entering the engine’s cylinders

MOA   See Military operations Area

Mode C transponder   A receiver/transmitter which will generate a radar reply signal upon proper interrogation; the interrogation and reply being on different frequencies Mode C means the reply signal includes altitude information

Moment   A force that causes or tries to cause an object to rotate The product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm Moments are expressed in pound-inches (lb-in) Total moment is the weight of the PPC multiplied by the distance between the datum and the CG

Moment arm   The distance from a datum to the applied force

MSL   See mean sea level

National Airspace System (NAS)   The common network of United States airspace air navigation facilities, equipment and services, airports or landing areas; sectional charts, information and services; rules, regulations and procedures, technical information; and manpower and material

National Security Area (NSA)   Area consisting of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities Pilots are requested to voluntarily avoid flying through the depicted NSA When it is necessary to provide a greater level of security and safety, flight in NSAs may be temporarily prohibited Regulatory prohibitions are disseminated via NOTAMs

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)   A United States Government independent organization responsible for investigations of accidents involving aviation, highways, waterways, pipelines, and railroads in the United States NTSB is charged by congress to investigate every civil aviation accident in the United States

NAVAID   Naviagtional aid

Newton’s Third Law of Motion   Whenever one body exerts a force on another, the second body always exerts on the first, a force that is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction

Nontowered Airport   An airport that does not have an operating control tower Two-way radio communications are not required at uncontrolled airports, although it is good operating practice for pilots to transmit their intentions on the specified frequency

NOTAM   See Notice to Airmen

Notice to Airmen   A notice containing information concerning facilities, services, or procedures, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations

Notice To Airman (NOTAM)   Notice to Airman that is regulatory in nature

Octane   The rating system of gasoline with regard to its antidetonating qualities

Operating limitations   Limitations published by aircraft manufacturers to define limitations on maneuvers, flight load factors, speeds and other limits Presented in the aircraft in the form of placards and printed in the limitations section of the aircraft flight manual

Overcontrolling   Using more movement in the control column than is necessary to achieve the desired pitch-andbank condition

Overshooting   The act of over flying an intended spot for landing or flying through a course intended for intercept

Overspeed   A condition in which an engine has produced more rpm than the manufacturer recommends, or a condition in which the actual engine speed is higher than the desired engine speed as set on the propeller control

Overtemp   A condition in which a device has reached a temperature above that approved by the manufacturer or any exhaust temperature that exceeds the maximum allowable for a given operating condition or time limit Can cause internal damage to an engine