Glossary   P - T

Parallel runways   Two or more runways at the same airport whose centerlines are parallel In addition to runway number, parallel runways are designated as L(left) and R(right) or if three parallel runways exist, L(left), C (center) and R(right)

Parasite drag   That part of total drag created by the design or shape of PPC parts Parasite drag increases with an increase in airspeed

Pattern altitude   The common altitude used for aircraft maneuvering in the traffic pattern Usually 1,000 above the airport surface

Personality tendencies   Personal traits and characteristics of an individual that are set at a very early age and extremely resistant to change

P-factor   A tendency for an aircraft to yaw to the left due to the descending propeller blade on the right producing more thrust than the ascending blade on the left This occurs when the aircraft’s longitudinal axis is in a climbing attitude in relation to the relative wind The P-factor would be to the right if the aircraft had a counterclockwise rotating propeller

PIC   See pilot in command

Pilotage   Navigational technique based on flight by reference to ground landmarks

Pilot in command   The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of an aircraft

Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH)   A document developed by the aircraft manufacturer and contains the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) information or Aircraft Operating Instructions (AOI) information

Pitch   The rotation of a WSC about its lateral axis

Pitch angle   The angle between the wing and the horizontal plane of the earth

Pitch attitude   The angle of the longitudinal axis relative to the horizon Pitch attitude serves as a visual reference for the pilot to maintain orchange airspeed

Placards   Small statements or pictorial signs permanently fixed in the cockpit and visible to the pilot Placards are used for operating limitations (e g , weight or speeds) or to indicate the position of an operating lever (e g , landing gear retracted or down and locked)

Planform   The shape or form of a wing as viewed from above It may be long and tapered, short and rectangular, or various other shapes

POH   See Pilot's Operating Handbook

Positive Dynamic Stability   The tendency over time for an aircraft to return to a predisturbed state

Position lights   Lights on an aircraft consisting of a red light on the left wing, a green light on the right wing, and a white light on the tail The Code of Federal Regulations requires that these lights be displayed in flight from sunset to sunrise

Positive static stability   The initial tendency to return to a state of equilibrium when disturbed from that state

Porpoising   Oscillating around the lateral axis of the aircraft during landing

Powered parachute (PPC)   A powered aircraft comprised of a flexible or semi-rigid wing connected to a fuselage (cart) so that the wing is not in position for flight until the aircraft is in motion The fuselage of a powered parachute contains the aircraft engine, a seat for each occupant and is attached to the aircraft’s landing gear

Power-off descent   Aircraft configuration where a descent occurs with power at idle

Powerplant   A complete engine and propeller combination with accessories

PPC   See powered parachute

PPCL   Powered parachute land

PPCS   Powered parachute sea

Practical test   Flight test administered by an FAA examiner or designated examiner as a prerequisite for pilot certification Successful completion of the practical test is required to earn a pilot certificate or rating Commonly known as a checkride

Practical Test Standards (PTS)   An FAA published document of standards that must be met for the issuance of a particular pilot certificate or rating FAA inspectors and designated pilot examiners use these standards when conducting pilot practical tests, and flight instructors use the PTS while preparing applicants for practical tests

Preflight inspection   Aircraft inspection conducted to determine if an aircraft is mechanically and legally airworthy

Preignition   Ignition occurring in the cylinder before the time of normal ignition Preignition is often caused by a local hot spot in the combustion chamber igniting the fuel/air mixture

Pressure altitude   The altitude indicated when the altimeter setting window (barometric scale) is adjusted to 29 92 This is the altitude above the standard datum plane, which is a theoretical plane where air pressure (corrected to 15 ºC) equals 29 92 "Hg Pressure altitude is used to compute density altitude, true altitude, true airspeed, and other performance data

Private airport   Airport that is privately owned and not available to the public without prior permission They are depicted on sectional charts for emergency and landmark purposes

Private Pilot Certificate   An FAA-issued pilot certificate permitting carriage of passengers on a not-for-hire basis Reference 14 CFR part 61

Prohibited area   Designated airspace within which flight of aircraft is prohibited

Propeller   A device for propelling an aircraft that, when rotated, produces by its action on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation It includes the control components normally supplied by its manufacturer

Propeller blade angle   The angle between the propeller chord and the propeller plane of rotation

Propeller blast   The volume of air accelerated behind a propeller producing thrust

Propeller slipstream   The volume of air accelerated behind a propeller producing thrust

PTS   See Practical Test Standards

Public airport   Airport that is available to the aviation public

Pusher configuration   Propeller configuration where the propeller shaft faces the rear of the aircraft Thrust produced by the propeller pushes the aircraft, rather than pulling it

Reciprocating engine   An engine that converts the heat energy from burning fuel into the reciprocating movement of the pistons This movement is converted into a rotary motion by the connecting rods and crankshaft

Reduction gear   The gear arrangement in an aircraft engine that allows the engine to turn at a faster speed than the propeller

Reflex   The opposite curvature of the airfoil at the trailing edge which produces a positive pitching moment of the WSC airfoil

Reflex lines   Wires attached to the top of the king post and the trailing edge of the airfoil to maintain the reflex of the airfoil, used on some wings for trim by raising and lowering the trailing edge of the wing

Region of reverse command   Flight regime in which flight at a higher airspeed requires a lower power setting and a lower airspeed requires a higher power setting in order to maintain altitude

Registration certificate   A federal certificate that documents aircraft ownership

Relative humidity   The ratio of the existing amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount that could exist at that temperature; usually expressed in percent

Relative wind   The direction the wind strikes an airfoil If a wing moves forward horizontally, the relative wind moves backward horizontally Relative wind is parallel to and opposite the flightpath of the airplane

Restricted area   Airspace designated under 14 CFR part 73 within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction

Ribs   The parts of an aircraft wing structure that give the wing its aerodynamic cross section WSC has battens that are inserted in to the sail that act as ribs

Risk   The future impact of a hazard that is not eliminated or controlled

Risk elements   The four fundamental areas of exposure to risk: the pilot, the aircraft, the environment, and the type of operation that comprise any given aviation situation

Risk management   The part of the decision making process which relies on situational awareness, problem recognition, and good judgment to reduce risks associated with each flight

Roll   The rotation of an aircraft about its longitudinal axis It is controlled by moving the control bar side to side

Roundout (flare)   The slow, smooth transition from a normal approach attitude to a landing attitude This maneuver is accomplished in a WSC by easing forward on the control bar from approach speed as the WSC gets near the ground for landing to reduce the descent rate to zero as the back whels are inches above the ground, continuing to move the control bar forward reducing speed as the back wheels are inches above the landing surface, and continuing to push the control bar full forward until the back wheels settle to the surface for touchdown

RPM   Revolutions per minute for the engine crankshaft A measure of rotational speed One rpm is one revolution made in one minute

Runway   A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length Runways are normally numbered in relation to their magnetic direction rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees (e g , Runway 1, Runway 25)

Runway incursion   Any occurrence at an airport involving an aircraft, vehicle, person, or object on the ground that creates a collision hazard or results in loss of separation with an aircraft taking off, intending to takeoff, landing, or intending to land

Runway threshold markings   Runway threshold markings come in two configurations They either consist of eight longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the runway centerline, or the number of stripes is related to the runway width A threshold marking helps identify the beginning of the runway that is available for landing In some instances, the landing threshold may be displaced

Safety directive   A manufacturer issued change to a S-LSA that must be complied with This is similar to an airworthiness directive which is a regulatory notice sent out by the FAA to the registered owner of an aircraft informing the owner of a condition that prevents the aircraft from continuing to meet its conditions for airworthiness Airworthiness Directives (AD notes) must be complied with within the required time limit, and the fact of compliance, the date of compliance, and the method of compliance must be recorded in the aircraft’s maintenance records

SAR   See search and rescue

Scan   A procedure used by the pilot to visually identify all resources of information in flight

Scanning   Systematic means of searching for other aircraft Scanning is most effective when successive areas of the sky are brought into focus using a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements

Scenario-based training   The instructor provides pilot, aircraft, environment, and operational risk elements to train the student to utilize ADM in making the best decision for the given set of circumstances

SD   See safety directave

Sea level   A reference height used to determine standard atmospheric conditions and altitude measurements

Search and rescue (SAR)   A lifesaving service provided through the combined efforts of the federal agencies signatory to the National SAR plan along with state agencies

Sectional charts   Designed for visual navigation of slow or medium speed aircraft Topographic information on these charts features the portrayal of relief, and a judicious selection of visual check points for VFR flight Aeronautical information includes visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions and related data

See and avoid   When weather conditions permit, pilots operating IFR or VFR are required to observe and maneuver to avoid other aircraft Right-of-way rules are contained in 14 CFR part 91

Segmented circle   A visual indicator around a windsock or tetrahedron designed to show the traffic pattern for each runway

Shallow-banked turn   Turns in which the bank is less than approximately 20 degrees

Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM)   Area of human factors study that addresses application of management skills in the cockpit Single pilots of small aircraft must make effective use of all available resources; human resources, hardware, and information

Single surface wing   one piece of fabric for most of the airfoil on a WSC with the cross bar exposed to the airflow Typically used for slower wings

Situational awareness   The accurate perception and understanding of all the factors and conditions within the four fundamental risk elements that affect safety before, during, and after the flight

Skills and procedures   The procedural, psychomotor, and perceptual skills used to control a specific aircraft or its systems They are the airmanship abilities that are gained through conventional training, are perfected, and become almost automatic through experience

Skin   The outside covering of an aircraft airframe

Skin friction drag   The type of parasite drag resulting from a rough surface which deflects the streamlines of air on the surface, causing resistance to smooth airflow

S-LSA (Special Light-Sport Aircraft)   An aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in accordance with 14 CFR section 21 290 in the light-sport category These aircraft meet the ASTM industry-developed consensus standards

Solo flight   Flight that is conducted and logged when a pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft

Spatial disorientation   Specifically refers to the lack of orientation with regard to the position, attitude, or movement of the WSC in space

Special flight permit   A flight permit issued to an aircraft that does not meet airworthiness requirements but is capable of safe flight A special flight permit can be issued to move an aircraft for the purposes of maintenance or repair, buyer delivery, manufacturer flight tests, evacuation from danger, or customer demonstration Also referred to as a ferry permit

Special Use Airspace (SUA)   Airspace that exists where activities must be confined because of their nature Consists of prohibited, restricted, warning, military operations, and alert areas

Speed   The distance traveled in a given time

Sport Pilot Certificate   An FAA-issued pilot certificate, allowing the holder to operate a light-sport aircraft in the category, class, make and model for which they are endorsed to do so

SRM   See Single Pilot Resource Management

Stabilized Approach   A landing approach in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glidepath towards a predetermined point on the landing runway It is based on the pilot’s judgment of certain visual cues, and depends on the maintenance of a constant final descent airspeed and configuration

Stall   A rapid decrease in lift caused by the separation of airflow from the wing’s surface brought on by exceeding the critical angle of attack A stall can occur at any pitch attitude or airspeed

Stalling speed   For WSC, the power-off stall speed at the maximum takeoff weight (the lower limit of the green arc)

Standard airport traffic pattern   The left-hand turn traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, or taking off from an airport Reference 14 CFR section 91 126 (a)(1) and AIM chapter 4, section 3

Standard Atmosphere   Consisting of those atmospheric conditions at sea level that include a barometric pressure of 29 92 inches of mercury ("Hg) or 1013 2 millibars, and a temperature of 15 °C (59 °F) Pressure and temperature normally decrease as altitude increases The standard lapse rate in the lower atmosphere for each 1,000 feet of altitude is approximately 1 "Hg and 2 °C (3 5 °F) For example, the standard pressure and temperature at 3,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) is 26 92 "Hg (29 92 – 3) and 9 °C (15 – 6)

Static pressure   The pressure of air that is still, or not moving, measured perpendicular to the surface exposed to the air

Static stability   The initial tendency an aircraft displays when disturbed from a state of equilibrium

Stationary front   A front that is moving at a speed of less than 5 knots

Steep turn   Turn resulting from a degree of bank of 45 degrees or more

Straight-in approach   Entry into the traffic pattern by interception of the extended runway centerline (final approach course) without executing any other portion of the traffic pattern

Stress management   The personal analysis of the kinds of stress experienced while flying, the application of appropriate stress assessment tools, and other coping mechanisms

Strobe   A high-intensity white flashing light Strobe lights are located on aircraft wingtips to increase aircraft visibility in low light conditions

Strut   Wing structural member used to hold the wings in place instead of the flying and ground wires for some designs The “strutted wing” does not use a kingpost

Student Pilot Certificate   An FAA issued certificate that permits student pilots to exercise solo pilot privileges with limitations This can be a student’s FAA third class medical or a student pilot certificate issued for flying an LSA using a driver’s license as medical eligibility

SUA   See special use airspace

Surface analysis chart   A report that depicts an analysis of the current surface weather Shows the areas of high and low pressure, fronts, temperatures, dewpoints, wind directions and speeds, local weather, and visual obstructions

Tailwind   Wind blowing in the same direction the aircraft is moving When an aircraft is flying with a tailwind, its speed over the ground is equal to its speed through the air, plus the speed the air is moving over the ground

Takeoff clearance   ATC authorization for an aircraft to depart a runway It is predicated on known traffic and known physical airport conditions

Taxi   The movement of an aircraft under its own power while on the ground

Taxiway   Airport area designated for aircraft surface movement

Temporary flight restriction (TFR)   Designated airspace of specified dimension where flight is temporarily restricted or prohibited NOTAMs are issued to advise airmen of local TFR restrictions

Terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF)   A report established for the 5 statute mile radius around an airport Utilizes the same descriptors and abbreviations as the METAR report

Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)   Area where participating pilots can receive additional radar services, the purpose of which is to provide separation between all IFR operations and participating VFR aircraft

TFR   See temporary flight restriction

Thermal   A buoyant plume or bubble of rising air

Throttle   The control in an aircraft that regulates the power or thrust the pilot wants the engine to develop from the valve in a carburetor or fuel control unit that determines the amount of fuel-air mixture that is fed to the engine

Thrust   The force which imparts a change in the velocity of a mass A forward force which propels the WSC through the air

Thrust line   An imaginary line passing through the center of the propeller hub, perpendicular to the plane of the propeller rotation

Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR)   That portion of the code formerly called the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) governing the operation of aircraft, airways, and airmen

Torque   (1) A resistance to turning or twisting (2) Forces that produce a twisting or rotating motion (3) In a WSC, the tendency of the aircraft to turn (roll) in the opposite direction of rotation of the engine and propeller

Total drag   The sum of the parasite and induced drag

Touch and go   An operation by an aircraft that lands and takes off without stopping

Touchdown point   The point or intended point at which an aircraft first makes contact with the landing surface

Touchdown zone   The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended landing aircraft first contact the runway

Towered airport   An airport that has an operating control tower

Track   The actual path made over the ground in flight

Traffic pattern   The traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft landing at or taking off from an airport

Traffic pattern indicators   Ground based visual indicators that identify traffic pattern direction at certain airports

Trailing edge   The aft edge of the airfoil In normal flight, it is the portion of the airfoil where airflow over the upper surface rejoins the lower surface airflow

Training bars   An attachment to the control frame which allows the instructor in the rear seat to move the control bar and control the pitch and bank with a solid attachment

Transponder   The airborne portion of the secondary surveillance radar system The transponder emits a reply when queried by a radar facility

Tricycle gear configuration   Landing gear configuration employing a third wheel located on the nose of the aircraft

True airspeed   Actual airspeed, determined by applying a correction for pressure altitude and temperature to the CAS Because air density decreases with an increase in altitude, an airplane has to be flown faster at higher altitudes to cause the same pressure difference between pitot impact pressure and static pressure Therefore, for a given calibrated airspeed, true airspeed increases as altitude increases; or for a given true airspeed, calibrated airspeed decreases as altitude increases

True altitude   The vertical distance of the airplane above sea level the actual altitude It is often expressed as feet above mean sea level (MSL) Airport, terrain, and obstacle elevations on sectional charts are true altitudes

TRSA   See Terminal Radar Service Area

Tuck   A nose down situation in a WSC where the pitch angle is over 90 degrees down resulting from a whip stall or severe turbulence

Tumble   The WSC rotating uncontrollably around its lateral axis from a whip stall or severe turbulence Results of a tumble would probably cause a structural failure with catastrophic consequences

Turbulence   An occurrence in which a flow of fluid is unsteady

Twist   The design of the WSC wing in which a wing is twisted so its angle of attack is less at the tip than at the root This decreases the lift the wing produces at the tip to improve the stall characteristics of the wing Also called washout

Two-stroke engine   A simple form of reciprocating engine that completes its operating cycle in two strokes of its piston, one down and one up Two-stroke-cycle engines are inefficient in their use of fuel, but their simplicity makes them popular for powering light-sport aircraft and ultralight vehicles where light weight and low cost are paramount

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