Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration

Revised 1977


This manual has been written in recognition of a need by all airmen for a comprehensive, yet easily understood text on aircraft weight and balance. An objective is to provide a knowledge source for the many pilots who show a need for a greater appreciation of the importance of weight and balance control as it relates to their safety in flight. The subject has been presented from the viewpoint of the pilot and aircraft owner or operator. The text progresses from an explanation of basic fundamentals to the complex application of weight and balance principles in large aircraft operations. The manual will, therefore, serve as a training guide for the beginning weight and balance student and as a reference for the veteran airman.

Pertinent FAA regulations, publications, and advisory circulars which have an impact upon weight and balance procedures have been considered in the development of this text. The reader should be aware, however, that regulations are subject to amendment; any questions regarding the currency of rules affecting the content of this text may he checked with the appropriate FAA office. The reader is also advised that rules governing certification for certain types of operations described in the text, require FAA approval of the weight and balance control procedures.

Particular attention has been given to the loading problems faced by the general aviation pilot when operating light aircraft, including twin engine air taxi types. Computations and solution methods for typical weight and balance problems are representative of those currently found in manuals published by aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, and commercial operators. Adherence to the principles and procedures described in this text should enhance the operational efficiency and safety of any aircraft.

The Pilot's Weight and Balance Handbook, issued as Advisory Circular 91-23A, cancels AC 91-23, dated 1969, and was prepared at the FAA Aeronautical Center by members of the Flight Standards Service. Comments regarding this handbook may be directed to the Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Flight Standards National Field Office, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73125.