1. CREW QUALIFICATIONS.
a. Background. In the "International Standards and Recommended Practices - Annex 6, Operation of Aircraft," the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) makes the following stipulations for flights outside the jurisdiction of member states:
(1) An operator shall ensure that all employees, when abroad, know that they must comply with the laws, regulations, and procedures of those states where operations are conducted.
(2) An operator shall ensure that all pilots are familiar with the laws, regulations, and procedures pertinent to the performance of their duties that are prescribed for the areas to be traversed, the airports to be used, and the related air navigation facilities. The operator shall ensure that other members of the flightcrew are familiar with such of these laws, regulations, and procedures that are pertinent to the performance of their respective duties in the operation of the aircraft.
(3) When the operation is conducted by the pilot-in-command (PIC), the PIC must perform the following:
(a) Comply with the relevant laws, regulations and procedures of the United States.
(b) Assume responsibility for the operation and safety of the aircraft and for the safety of all persons aboard during flight time.
(c) If an emergency situation that endangers the safety of the aircraft or persons necessitates action involving a violation of local regulations or procedures, the PIC shall notify the appropriate local authorities without delay. If required by the state in which the incident occurs, the PIC shall submit a report on any such violation to the appropriate authority of that state. In that event, the PIC shall also submit a copy in writing to the FAA Flight Standards National Field Office, AFS-500, PO Box 20034, Washington, DC 20041-2297. Such reports shall be submitted within 10 days of the incident.
(d) The PIC shall be responsible for notifying the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest available means of any accident involving the airplane resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial damage to the airplane or property.
b. Pilot as PIC. An operator shall not use a pilot as PIC of an aircraft on a route or route segment for which that pilot is not currently qualified until that pilot has demonstrated to the operator an adequate knowledge of the following:
(1) The route to be flown and the airports to be used
(2) The terrain and minimum safe altitudes
(3) The seasonal meteorological conditions
(4) The meteorological, communication, and air traffic facilities, services, and procedures
(5) The search and rescue procedures
(6) The navigational facilities and procedures, including any long range navigation procedures associated with the planned route
The PIC must also demonstrate an adequate knowledge of procedures applicable to flight paths over heavily populated areas and areas of high air traffic density; obstructions; physical layout; lighting; approach aids and arrival, departure, holding and instrument approach procedures (IAP); and applicable operating minimums.
The PIC shall have made an actual approach into each airport of landing on the route, accompanied by a pilot who is qualified for that aircraft, as a member of the flightcrew or as an observer on the flight deck, unless:
(1) The approach to the airport is not over difficult terrain and the LAPs and aids available are similar to those which the pilot is familiar, and a margin to be approved by the Administrator is added to the normal operating minimums, or there is reasonable certainty that a specific approach can be made in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).
(2) The descent from the initial approach altitude can be made by day in VMC.
(3) The operator qualifies the PIC to land at the airport concerned by means of an adequate pictorial presentation.
(4) The airport concerned is adjacent to another airport at which the PIC is currently qualified to land.
2. TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS.
a. Crews conducting oceanic flights shall be trained in a manner approved by the Administrator. Approval of air carrier's training programs will be granted in conjunction with their certification and subsequent issuance of operations specifications. General aviation aircraft desiring to fly in special use airspace will be granted approval through the issuance of a Letter of Authorization (LOA) (See Chapter 3 of this AC.) Crew qualifications for the issuance of an LOA may be satisfied by one of the following:
(1) Completing an operator's oceanic operations training program
(2) Completing a commercial oceanic operations training program
(3) Submitting military training records indicating prior oceanic operations experience
(4) Using other methods indicating to the operator that the crew can safely conduct oceanic operations (Examples could include written testing, oral testing, or evidence of prior experience)
b. For a crew to be considered as being qualified for oceanic operations, crew members must be knowledgeable in the following subject areas:
(1) ICAO operational rules and regulations
(2) ICAO measurement standards
(3) Use of oceanic flight planning charts
(4) Sources and content of international flight publications
(5) Itinerary planning
(6) FAA international flight plan, ICAO flight plan, and flight log preparation
(7) Route planning within the special use airspace where flights are to be conducted
(8) Enroute and terminal procedures - different to U.S. procedures
(9) Long range, air-to-ground communication procedures
(10) Structure of the special use airspace where the flights are to be conducted
(11) Air traffic clearances
(12) International meteorology, including significant weather, charts, prognostic weather charts, tropopause prognostic charts, and terminal area forecasts (TAF)
(13) Specific enroute navigation procedures for each type of navigation equipment required for use in the special use airspace
(14) Emergency procedures, including required emergency equipment, search
and rescue techniques, navigation equipment failure techniques, and communication
equipment failure techniques