OPERATIONS IN OTHER COUNTRIES
When flight crews transition from the U.S. NAS to
another country’s airspace, they should be aware of differences
not only in procedures but also airspace. For
example, when flying into Canada regarding altimeter
setting changes, as depicted in Figure 3-22 on page 3-18,
notice the change from QNE to QNH when flying northbound
into the Moncton flight information region
(FIR), an airspace of defined dimensions where flight
information service and alerting service are provided.
Transition altitude (QNH) is the altitude in the vicinity
of an airport at or below which the vertical position of
the aircraft is controlled by reference to altitudes (MSL).
The transition level (QNE) is the lowest flight level
available for use above the transition altitude. Transition
height (QFE) is the height in the vicinity of an airport at
or below which the vertical position of the aircraft is
expressed in height above the airport reference datum.
The transition layer is the airspace between the transition
altitude and the transition level. If descending
through the transition layer, set the altimeter to local station
pressure. When departing and climbing through the
transition layer, use the standard altimeter setting (QNE)
of 29.92 inches of Mercury, 1013.2 millibars, or 1013.2
hectopascals. Remember that most pressure altimeters
are subject to mechanical, elastic, temperature, and
installation errors. Extreme cold temperature differences
also may require a correction factor.
In addition to acknowledging a handoff to another
Center en route controller, there are reports that should
be made without a specific request from ATC. Certain
reports should be made at all times regardless of
whether a flight is in radar contact with ATC, while
others are necessary only if radar contact has been lost
or terminated. Refer to Figure 3-23 on page 3-19 for a
review of these reports.
NONRADAR POSITION REPORTS
If radar contact has been lost or radar service terminated,
the CFRs require pilots to provide ATC
with position reports over designated VORs and
intersections along their route of flight. These
compulsory reporting points are depicted on
NACO IFR en route charts by solid triangles.
Position reports over fixes indicated by open triangles
are noncompulsory reporting points, and are
only necessary when requested by ATC. If on a
direct course that is not on an established airway,
report over the fixes used in the flight plan that
define the route, since they automatically become
compulsory reporting points. Compulsory reporting
points also apply when conducting an IFR
flight in accordance with a VFR-on-top clearance.
Whether a route is on airways or direct, position
reports are mandatory in a nonradar environment,
and they must include specific information. A typical
position report includes information pertaining to aircraft
position, expected route, and estimated time
of arrival (ETA). Time may be stated in minutes
only when no misunderstanding is likely to occur.
[Figure 3-24 on page 3-20]