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  The Tuskegee Airmen

Part 7

Following the honored service of Blacks in World War II and realizing that a segregated force was wasteful and inefficient, then President I-Harry S. Truman signed an executive order in 1948 which signaled the abandonment of the official policy of segregation in the armed forces. Black military pilots, such as Daniel "Chappie" James and Frank E. Petersen, went on to successful careers during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts and most recently during the Gulf' War of 1991.

General Daniel "Chappie Jones" James Jr. was America's first Black four star general A combat veteran of the Korean and Vietnam wars James flew many wartime missions and held a variety of leadership positions. He passed in 1978. He is pictured here in front of' his F-4C Phantom in Thailand during the Vietnam War. This caption is from a photograph taken in the early 1940s of Black aviators being trained for World War II: Roosevelt Field, L.I. -What is said to be the first Negro squadron appeared here in uniform (early 1940s) to go through their training paces.

As soon as all obtain their pilot's licenses, they will go through an advanced flying course to prepare for possible duty in Abyssinia against the Italians. One of the group, Ms. Lola Jackson, far left, eventually expects to form a women's flying corps to serve as nurses. Editor's note: Some 4,000 Black women would serve in the Army in World War II as nurses.

Daniel "Chappie Jones" James Jr

After he pinned on his fourth star, Air Force Gen. Daniel James Jr. summed up his thoughts on his years of military service: "I've fought in three wars, and three more wouldn't be too many to defend my country. I love America, and as she has weaknesses or ills, I'll hold her hand." The first African-American service member to reach the rank of full general, "Chappie" James at the time of his promotion in 1975 was also named commander of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), with responsibility for all aspects of air defense for the United States and Canada.

James was born in Pensacola, Fla., on Feb. 11, 1920. He attended Tuskegee Institute and was one of the famed "Tuskegee Airmen." The unit was part of the government-sponsored Civilian Pilot Training Program, an all-black unit whose members were kept separated from their white counterparts. For more information on the Tuskegee Airmen, see this special feature.

In an era of enforced segregation in the armed forces, James continued to achieve despite racial bias. He fought in both the Korean and Vietnam wars, flying over 160 combat missions and leading the Bolo MiG sweep of 21 Communist aircraft — the highest total kill of any Vietnam air mission.

James had spent years gaining combat experience at Air Force bases at home and overseas. When he returned to the United States after his Vietnam assignment, he took command of the 7272nd Fighter Training Wing in the Libyan Arab Republic in 1969. Afterwards, however, James moved briefly into public affairs, and it was in his role as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense (public affairs) that he gave his most public contributions in service. As an effective and thoroughly professional Air Force spokesman, he spoke out not only on military policies, but also on racial policies.

No matter how outspoken James was in favor of desegregation, what most people recall from his speeches is his deep patriotism and commitment to duty. Among his numerous awards is the 1970 Arnold Air Society Eugene M. Zuckert Award for outstanding contributions to Air Force professionalism. The citation for the honor says it all, proclaiming James a "fighter pilot with a magnificent record, public speaker, and eloquent spokesman for the American Dream we so rarely achieve."


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