CHAPTER 2. FLIGHT TRAINING - STALLS
12. STALL TRAINING.
Flight instructor - airplane and flight instructor - glider applicants must be able to give stall training. The flight instructor should emphasize that techniques and procedures for each aircraft may differ and that pilots should be aware of the flight characteristics of each aircraft flown. Single engine stalls should not be demonstrated or practiced in multiengine airplanes.
Engine out minimum control speed demonstrations in multiengine airplanes should not be attempted when the density altitude and temperature are such that the engine out minimum control speed is close to the stall speed, since loss of directional or lateral control could result. The flight training required by FAR Part 61 does not entail the actual practicing of spins for other than flight instructor - airplane and flight instructor - glider applicants, but emphasizes stall and spin avoidance.
The most effective training method contained in Report No. FAA-RD-77-26 is the simulation of scenarios that can lead to inadvertent stalls by creating distractions while the student is practicing certain maneuvers. Stall demonstrations and practice, including maneuvering during slow flight and other maneuvers with distractions that can lead to inadvertent stalls, should be conducted at a sufficient altitude to enable recovery above 1,500 feet AGL in single engine airplanes and 3,000 feet AGL in multiengine airplanes. The following training elements are based on Report No. FAA-RD-77-26:
a. Stall Avoidance Practice at Slow Airspeeds.
(1) Assign a heading and an altitude. Have the student reduce power and slow to an airspeed just above the stall speed, using trim as necessary.
(2) Have the student maintain heading and altitude with the stall warning device activated.
(3) Demonstrate the effect of elevator trim (use neutral and full nose-up settings) and rudder trim, if available.
(4) Note the left turning tendency and rudder effectiveness for lateral/directional control.
(5) Emphasize how right rudder pressure is necessary to center the ball indicator and maintain heading.
(6) Release the rudder and advise the student to observe to the left yaw.
(7) Adverse yaw demonstration. While at a low airspeed, have the student enter left and right turns without using rudder pedals.
(8) Have the student practice turns, climbs, and descents at low airspeeds.
(9) Demonstrate the proper flap extension and retraction procedures while in level flight to avoid a stall at low airspeeds. Note the change in stall speeds with flaps extended and retracted.
(10) Realistic distractions at low airspeeds. Give the student a task to perform while flying at a low airspeed. Instruct the student to divide his/her attention between the task and flying the aircraft to maintain control and avoid a stall. The following distractions can be used:
(i) Drop a pencil. Ask the student to pick it up. Ask the student to
determine a heading to an airport using a chart.
(ii) Ask the student to reset the clock to Universal Coordinated Time.
(iii) Ask the student to get something from the back seat.
(iv) Ask the student to read the outside air temperature.
(v) Ask the student to call the Flight Service Station (FSS) for weather information.
(vi) Ask the student to compute true airspeed with a flight computer.
(vii) Ask the student to identify terrain or objects on the ground.
(viii) Ask the student to identify a field suitable for a forced landing.
(ix) Have the student climb 200 feet and maintain altitude, then descend 200 feet and maintain altitude.
(x) Have the student reverse course after a series of S-turns.
(11) Flight at low airspeeds with the airspeed indicator covered. Use various flap settings and distractions.
b. Departure Stall.
(1) At a safe altitude, have the student attempt coordinated power-on (departure) stalls straight ahead and in turns. Emphasize how these stalls could occur during takeoff.
(2) Ask the student to demonstrate a power-on (departure) stall and distract him/her just before the stall occurs. Explain any effects the distraction may have had on the stall or recovery.
c. Engine Failure in a Climb Followed by a 180 Degree Gliding Turn. This demonstration will show the student how much altitude the airplane loses following a power failure after takeoff and during a 180 degree turn back to the runway and why returning to the airport after losing an engine is not a recommended procedure. This can be performed using either a medium or steep bank in the 180 degree turn, but emphasis should be given to stall avoidance.
(1) Set up best rate of climb (Vy).
(2) Reduce power smoothly to idle as the airplane passes through a cardinal altitude.
(3) Lower the nose to maintain the best glide speed and make a 180 degree turn at the best glide speed.
(4) Point out the altitude loss and emphasize how rapidly airspeed decreases following a power failure in a climb attitude.
d. Cross Controlled Stalls in Gliding Turns. Perform stalls in gliding turns to simulate turns from base to final. Perform the stalls from a properly coordinated turn, a slipping turn, and a skidding turn. Explain the difference between slipping and skidding turns. Explain the ball indicator position in each turn and the aircraft behavior in each of the stalls.
e. Power-off (Approach-To-Landing) stalls.
(1) Have the student perform a full-flap, gear extended, power-off stall with the correct recovery and cleanup procedures. Note the loss of altitude.
(2) Have the student repeat this procedure and distract the student during the stall and recovery and note the effect of the distraction. Show how errors in flap retraction procedure can cause a secondary stall.
f. Stalls During Go-Arounds.
(1) Have the student perform a full-flap, gear extended, power-off stall, then recover and attempt to climb with flaps extended. If a higher than normal climb pitch attitude is held, a secondary stall will occur. (In some airplanes, a stall will occur if a normal climb pitch attitude is held.)
(2) Have the student perform a full-flap, gear extended, power-off stall, then recover and retract the flaps rapidly as a higher than normal climb pitch attitude is held. A secondary stall or settling with a loss of altitude may result.
g. Elevator Trim Stall.
(1) Have the student place the airplane in a landing approach configuration, in a trimmed descent.
(2) After the descent is established, initiate a go-around by adding full power, holding only light elevator and right rudder pressure.
(3) Allow the nose to pitch up and torque to swerve the airplane left. At the first indication of a stall, recover to a normal climbing pitch attitude.
(4) Emphasize the importance of correct attitude control, application of control pressures, and proper trim during go-arounds.
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