RECOMMENDED STANDARD TRAFFIC PATTERNS AND PRACTICES FOR AERONAUTICAL OPERATIONS AT AIRPORTS WITHOUT OPERATING CONTROL TOWERS
1. PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) calls attention to regulatory requirements and recommended procedures for aeronautical operations at airports without operating control towers. It recommends traffic patterns and operational procedures for aircraft, lighter than air, glider, parachute, rotorcraft, and Ultralight Vehicle operations where such use is not in conflict with existing procedures in effect at those airports.
2. CANCELLATION. AC 90-66, Recommended Standard Traffic Patterns for Airplane Operations at Uncontrolled Airports, dated February 27, 1975, is canceled.
3. PRINCIPAL CHANGES. This AC has been updated to reflect current procedures at airports without operating control towers. Principal changes include: adding on "Other Traffic Pattern" section, amending appendix charts to remain consistent with the Airman's Information Manual (AIM), expanding the "Related Reading Material" section from "airplane" to "aeronautical" operations, adding definition and references to Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), acknowledging straight-in approaches are not prohibited but may be operationally advantageous, and adding a paragraph on wake turbulence.
a. Airports Without Operating Control Towers. Airports without control towers or an airport with a control tower which is not operating. These airports are commonly referred to as non-towered, uncontrolled, or part-time towered airports.
b. Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF). A frequency designed for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower. The CTAF may be a UNICOM, MULTICOM, flight service station, or tower frequency and is identified in appropriate aeronautical publications.
5. RELATED READING MATERIAL.
a. Airport Facility Directory (AFD).
b. Airman's Information Manual (AIM).
c. Fly Neighborly Guide, Helicopter Association International.
d. Aviation USA, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA).
e. State aviation publications.
f. Various pilot guides.
g. Pilot Operations at Nontowered Airports, AOPA Air Safety Foundation pamphlet.
h. Guidelines for the Operation of Ultralight Vehicles at Existing Airports, United States Ultralight Association.
i. Facts for Pilots, United States Parachute Association.
j. The latest addition of the following AC's also contain information applicable to operations at airports without operating control towers:
(1) AC 90-23, Aircraft Wake Turbulence.
(2) AC 90-42, Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers.
(3) AC 90 48, Pilot's Role in Collision Avoidance.
(4) AC 91-32, Safety In and Around Helicopters.
(5) AC 103-6, Ultralight Vehicle Operations-Airports, Air Traffic Control, and Weather.
(6) AC 105-2, Sport Parachute Jumping.
BACKGROUND AND SCOPE.
a. Regulatory provisions relating to traffic patterns are found in Parts 91, 93, and 97 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). The airport traffic patterns contained in Part 93 relate primarily to those airports where there is a need for unique traffic pattern procedures not provided for in Part 91. Part 97 addresses instrument approach procedures. At airports without operating control towers, Part 91 requires only that pilots of airplanes approaching to land make all turns to the left unless light signals or visual markings indicate that turns should be made to the right.
b. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) believes that observance of a standard traffic pattern and the use of CTAF procedures as detailed in AC 90~2 will improve the safety and efficiency of aeronautical operations at airports without operating control towers.
7. GENERAL OPERATING PRACTICES.
a. Use of standard traffic patterns for all aircraft and CTAF procedures by radio-equipped aircraft are recommended at all airports without operating control towers. However, it is recognized that other traffic patterns may already be in common use at some airports or- that special circumstances or conditions exist that may prevent use of the standard traffic pattern.
b. The use of any traffic pattern procedure does not alter the responsibility of each pilot to see and avoid other aircraft. Pilots are encouraged to participate in "Operation Lights On," which is a voluntary pilot safety program described in the AIM designed to enhance the "see-and-avoid" requirement.
c. As part of the preflight familiarization with all available information concerning a flight, each pilot should review all appropriate publications (AFD, AIM, Notices to Airmen (NOTAM), etc.), for pertinent information on current traffic patterns at the departure and arrival airports.
d. It is recommended that pilots utilize visual indicators, such as the segmented circle, wind direction indicator, landing direction indicator, and traffic pattern indicators which provide traffic pattern information.
e. The FAA encourages pilots to use the standard traffic pattern. However, for those pilots who choose to execute a straight-in approach, maneuvering for and execution of the approach should be completed so as not to disrupt the flow of arriving and departing traffic. Therefore, pilots operating in the traffic pattern should be alert at all times to aircraft executing straight-in approaches.
f. Pilots who wish to conduct instrument approaches should be particularly alert for other aircraft in the pattern so as to avoid interrupting the flow of traffic. Position reports on the CTAF should include distance and direction from the airport, as well as the pilot's intentions upon completion of the approach.
g. Pilots of inbound nonradio-equipped aircraft should determine the runway in use prior to entering the traffic pattern by observing the landing direction indicator or by other means. Pilots should be aware that procedures at airports without operating control towers generally do not require the use of two-way radios; therefore, pilots should be especially vigilant for other aircraft while operating in the traffic pattern.
h. Wake turbulence is generated by all aircraft. Therefore, pilots should expect to encounter turbulence while operating in a traffic pattern and in proximity to other aircraft. Aircraft components and equipment can be damaged by wake turbulence. In flight, avoid the area below and behind the aircraft generating turbulence especially at low altitude where even momentary wake encounter can be hazardous. All operators should be aware of the potential adverse effects that their wake, rotor or propeller turbulence has on light aircraft and ultralight vehicles.
8. RECOMMENDED STANDARD TRAFFIC PATTERN
Airport owners and operators, in coordination with the FAA, are responsible for establishing traffic patterns. However, the FAA encourages airport owners and operators to establish traffic patterns as recommended in this AC. Further, left traffic patterns should be established except where obstacles, terrain, and noise-sensitive areas dictate otherwise. Appendix 1 contains diagrams for recommended standard traffic patterns.
a. Prior to entering the traffic pattern at an airport without an operating control tower, aircraft should avoid the flow of traffic until established on the entry leg. For example, wind and landing direction indicators can be checked while at an altitude above the traffic pattern. When the proper traffic pattern direction has been determined, the pilot should then proceed to a point well clear of the pattern before descending to the pattern altitude.
b. Arriving aircraft should be at the appropriate traffic pattern altitude before entering the traffic pattern. Entry to the downwind leg should be at a 45 degree angle abeam the midpoint of the runway.
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