Chapter 1. Mathematics

Mathematics   1-1
Mathematics in Aviation Maintenance 1-1
Whole Numbers 1-1
Addition of Whole Numbers 1-1
Subtraction of Whole Numbers 1-1
Multiplication of Whole Numbers 1-1
Division of Whole Numbers 1-2
Fractions 1-2
Finding the Least Common Denominator 1-2
Addition of Fractions 1-2
Subtraction of Fractions 1-2
Multiplication of Fractions 1-3
Division of Fractions 1-3
Reducing Fractions 1-3
Mixed Numbers 1-4
Addition of Mixed Numbers 1-4
Subtraction of Mixed Numbers 1-4
The Decimal Number System 1-4
The Origin and Definition 1-4
Addition of Decimal Numbers 1-5
Subtraction of Decimal Numbers 1-5
Multiplication of Decimal Numbers 1-5
Division of Decimal Numbers 1-6
Rounding Off Decimal Numbers 1-6
Converting Decimal Numbers to Fractions 1-6
Converting Fractions to Decimals 1-7
Decimal Equivalent Chart 1-7
Ratio 1-7
Aviation Applications 1-9
Proportion 1-9
Extremes and Means 1-9
Solving Proportions 1-10
Percentage 1-10
Expressing a Decimal Number as a Percentage 1-10
Expressing a Percentage as a Decimal Number 1-10
Expressing a Fraction as a Percentage 1-10
Finding a Percentage of a Given Number 1-10
Finding What Percentage One Number Is of Another 1-10
Finding a Number When a Percentage of It Is Known 1-11
Positive and Negative Numbers (Signed Numbers) 1-11
Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers 1-11
Subtraction of Positive and Negative Numbers 1-11
Multiplication of Positive and Negative Numbers 1-11
Division of Positive and Negative Numbers 1-12
Powers 1-12
Special Powers 1-12
Negative Powers 1-12
Law of Exponents 1-12
Powers of Ten 1-12
Roots 1-12
Square Roots 1-13
Cube Roots 1-13
Fractional Powers 1-13
Functions of Numbers Chart 1-13
Scientific Notation 1-13
Converting Numbers from Standard Notation to Scientific Notation 1-16
Converting Numbers from Scientific Notation to Standard Notation 1-16
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division of Scientific Numbers 1-16
Algebra 1-16
Equations 1-16
Algebraic Rules 1-16
Solving for a Variable 1-17
Use of Parentheses 1-17
Order of Operation 1-17
Order of Operation for Algebraic Equations 1-18
Computing Area of Two-Dimensional Solids 1-18
Rectangle 1-18
Square 1-18
Triangle 1-19
Parallelogram 1-19
Trapezoid 1-19
Circle 1-20
Ellipse 1-20
Wing Area 1-20
Units of Area 1-21
Computing Volume of Three-Dimensional Solids 1-21
Rectangular Solid 1-21
Cube 1-22
Cylinder 1-22
Sphere 1-23
Cone 1-23
Units of Volume 1-23
Computing Surface Area ofThree-Dimensional Solids 1-23
Rectangular Solid 1-23
Cube 1-24
Cylinder 1-24
Sphere 1-24
Cone 1-24
Trigonometric Functions 1-24
Right Triangle, Sides and Angles 1-24
Sine, Cosine, and Tangent 1-24
Pythagorean Theorem 1-25
Measurement Systems 1-25
Conventional (U.S. or English) System 1-25
Metric System 1-25
Measurement Systems and Conversions 1-26
The Binary Number System 1-26
Place Values 1-26 Converting Binary Numbers to Decimal Numbers 1-26
Converting Decimal Numbers to Binary Numbers 1-27